The Topic: 
Buffalo Soldiers

Easier - Buffalo Soldiers was a name given to two cavalry regiments and two infantry regiments. These United States Army units were made up entirely of African American soldiers.
 
Harder - In 1866 two U.S. Army African American regiments were formed, the 9th and 10th cavalries. Members of these two cavalry units and two all-black infantry regiments, the 24th and 25th, came to be called Buffalo Soldiers. By 1867, the first Buffalo Soldier units were sent to the West to fight Indians and protect settlers, cattle herds, and railroad crews. Indians gave the troops the name of Buffalo Soldiers, probably because their short, dark, curly hair resembled the mane of the buffalo. In the 1950s, Buffalo Soldier regiments were disbanded when all military services were integrated.
 
 
Buffalo Soldiers at Fort Huachuca (Huachuca Illustrated) 
http://www.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/comment/huachuca/HI1-00index.htm
This series of articles tries to convey what it was like to be a soldier along the Mexican border from 1913 to 1939, especially an African-American soldier.
 
Buffalo Soldiers on the Western Frontier 
http://www.imh.org/imh/buf/buftoc.html
Here you find information on the African American soldiers.
 
Buffalo Soldiers - America's Unsung Heroes (BuffaloSoldiers.Net) 
http://www.buffalosoldiers.net/
This site links to tons of information about buffalo soldiers. You can also find photos here.
Another Buffalo Soldiers Links-site:
2) Buffalo Soldiers http://blackarchives.org/links/soldiers.htm
 
Texas Buffalo Soldiers History (Texas Parks and Wildlife) 
http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/park/admin/buffalo/bf_history_toc.htm
Learn about the black soldiers of the 9th & 10th Cavalry and the 24th & 25th Infantry Regiments and their "Outstanding" Acts of Valor during the Indian Wars Campaign.
 
After exploring several of the websites below, complete one or more of the following projects:
 
Find Connections between Bob Marley & the Buffalo Soldiers. Follow the instructions at The Buffalo Soldiers to learn more about the African American Buffalo Soldiers and explore the connections of their lives to the life of Bob Marley, a Jamaican musician, in a song that he wrote.
 
Complete a Buffalo Soldiers WebQuest. Follow or adapt the procedures at one of the following webQuest sites.
1) Blazing Trails with the Buffalo Soldiers by Gwendolyn McNeil http://www.memphis-schools.k12.tn.us/admin/tlapages/buffalo.html
2) Buffalo Soldiers Textbook by Clinton Cox http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/buffalo/buffsg.html
3) Buffalo Soldiers: Unsung Heroes of the Old West http://teach.fhu.edu/technology/EDU506/WebQuests/bsoldiers/thebuff.htm
 
Create a Buffalo Soldier Diary. Visit sites like The Buffalo Soldiers at Fort Huachuca and The Buffalo Soldiers on the Western Frontier, then create a diary that explains the daily life of a typical Buffalo Soldier serving on the western frontier. You can include your own sketches or illustrations. As an alternative activity, select a different time period such as the Spanish-American or one of the World Wars.
 
Write a Buffalo Soldier Biography. Visit the websites for Henry Flipper or Cathay Williams (Listed below). Then write a brief biography of their lives. Make your own book and share it with friends and family.
 
Make a Buffalo Soldier Drawing. Study the photographs found at Buffalo Soldiers - America's Unsung Heroes and other websites. Then create your own Buffalo Soldier artwork. You might start by sketching a cavalry trooper and his horse or an infantryman. Decide whether your scene will be on a patrol, in a skirmish, or portray a daily fort scene.
 
Website by Kids for Kids
Buffalo Soldiers (ThinkQuest Junior) 
http://tqjunior.thinkquest.org/4087/
This website covers the Buffalo Soldiers' history from post Civil War regiments through World War II.
 
Buffalo Soldiers Project at Austin Learning Academy 
http://www.alaweb.org/studentfolder/studentfiles/buffalo/buffalo.htm
Students researched the Texas Buffalo Soldiers on the Internet and interviewed Ken Pollard of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Then they compared and contrasted campouts today with campouts of the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1800s. What they found is at this website.
 
More Buffalo Soldier Websites
Buffalo Soldiers & Indian Wars 
http://www.buffalosoldier.net/
This website developed by Stanford L. Davis contains historical photos and good information about the history of the Buffalo Soldier and Davis' great-grandfather, sergeant Henry Parker.
 
Buffalo Soldiers: Lest We Forget 
http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/buf_sol.htm
Find lots of information about the 9th and 10th cavalry and the 24th and 25th infantry units that were stationed at Fort Davis, Texas - plus lots more.
 
Female Buffalo Soldier 
http://www.buffalosoldier.net/CathayWilliamsFemaleBuffaloSoldierWithDocuments.htm
This website presents the story of Cathay Williams/William Cathay, soldier from 1866. 1868, the only known female soldier in the regiments.
Related Website:
2) Female Buffalo Soldier lived life of excitement and inspiration.
http://www.majorcox.com/columns/buffalo.htm
 
Lieutenant Henry O. Flipper 
http://www.mobeetie.com/pages/flipper.htm
Here you can learn about America's first black West Point graduate and first commissioned black officer; the Fort Davis 'buffalo soldier" who was unjustly coutmartialed, and recently pardoned by President Clinton on February 19, 1999.
Other Sites About Henry O. Flipper:
2) Lt. Henry Ossian Flipper http://www.rose.net/flipper.htm
3) Henry O. Flipper: West Point Pioneer http://www.aog.usma.edu/Pubs/Register/Flipper.htm
4) Henry Flipper http://charter.uchicago.edu/AAH/flipper.htm
 
Shadows in the Range of Light 
http://www.wilderness.net/wildlink/shadowsoldier/ho_homenofl_fram.html
Nearly 400 African-Americans traveled from California Presidios to the Sierra Nevada at the turn of the last century. Only one image and a handful of documents record their existence.
See If You Can Help Solve the Mystery:
2) Mystery http://www.wilderness.net/wildlink/shadowsoldier/ho_mystery.html
 
Websites for Teachers
Buffalo Soldiers at DiscoverySchool.com (Grades 6-12) 
http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/rediscoveringamerica-
buffalosoldiers/index.html
Students learn about African American soldiers and how they played a major role in the American military in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
 

cavalry
'buffalo soldier'
African American
infantry
soldier
Jim Crow Laws
reconstruction
segregation
freed slave
Native American
Apache
racism
fort
Spanish American War
Philippine Insurrection
Mexican Expedition
World War I
World War II
U.S. Army
Korean Conflict
San Juan Hill
western frontier
U.S.-Mexican border
escort
telegraph
regiment
trooper
Rio Grande
garrison
Butterfield Stage Line

 
 
Created by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson, 1/99 Update 9/00. Update by Nancy Smith 9/02