The Topic:
Japanese-American Internment

Easier - During World War II the U.S. government forced more than 120,000 Japanese Americans to leave their homes and along with farms, schools, jobs, and businesses. In some cases family members were separated. From 1942 to 1945, they lived in internment camps.
 
Harder - After the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066. This act based on ethnicity permitted the military to bypass the constitutional safeguards of American citizens in the name of national defense. The order excluded persons of Japanese ancestry then living on the West Coast from residing and working in certain locations. This traumatic uprootment culminated in the mass evacuation and incarceration of most Japanese Americans, most of whom were U.S. citizens or legal permanent resident aliens. They were detained for up to 4 years, without due process of law or any factual basis. They were forced to live in bleak, remote camps behind barbed wire and under the surveillance of armed guards. Japanese American internment raised questions about the rights of American citizens as embodied in the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
 
Children of the Camps
http://www.children-of-the-camps.org/
This companion site to the PBS program portrays the experiences and ongoing impact of U.S. Internment on the 60,000 Japanese Americans who were children at the time.
Related Website:
2) Children of the Camps from PBS http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/index.html
Other Related PBS Sites:
3) Conscience and the Constitution from PBS http://www.pbs.org/conscience/
4) Rabbit in the Moon http://www.pbs.org/pov/tvraceinitiative/rabbitinthemoon/
 
Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project from University of Washington
http://www.lib.washington.edu/exhibits/harmony/default.htm
This site provides access to the UW Libraries holdings on the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II, including a virtual exhibit focusing on the Puyallup assembly center, Camp Harmony, and the archival guides and inventories of the UW Libraries Manuscripts and University Archives Division.
 
Japanese American Experience from Museum of the Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies
http://www.balchinstitute.org/museum/japanese/jap-am.html
Learn more about Japanese American experience and the legacy of internment.
Other Museum Exhibits:
2) Forwarding Address Required from Smithsonian National Postal Museum
http://www.si.edu/postal/far/exhibit.html
3) Internment of San Francisco Japanese from the Museum of the City of San Francisco
http://www.sfmuseum.org/war/evactxt.html
4) More Perfect Union from Smithsonian Museum of American History
http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/experience/
 
Masumi Hayashie Photography
http://www.csuohio.edu/art_photos/
This online gallery displays the artist's work showing Japanese American Internment camps in the U. S. and Canada, the daily life of camp inhabitants, and more.
Related Website:
2) Gallery http://oz.net/~cyu/internment/gallery.html
3) Images of the Japanese American Internment http://www.momomedia.com/CLPEF/gallery.html
4) Roosevelt's Policy in WW II: US Concentration Camps for Japanese
http://www.codoh.com/zundel/antiprop/japanese/japtoc.html
  
After visiting several of the websites, complete one or more of the following projects.
 
Complete A WebQuest on Japanese Internment. Follow or adapt the procedures found at the following webQuest sites.
1) American World War II Internment Camps (Grades 7-9) by J. Franco, E. Franco, and L.R. Evans
http://www.pavenet.org/FTP/Users/all_share/Cohort1/5319Project/CAMPS/American%20WW%20II%20Internment%20Camps3.htm
2) Imprisoned in Our Own Country; Japanese- American Internment Camps
http://www.lams.losalamos.k12.nm.us/heacock/campsEmilySamantha.htm
3) Japanese Internment by E. Cierniak http://www.e-muse.com.au/japaneseinternment/wq.html
 
Detention or Concentration Camp? Some people disagree with how the history of Japanese-American Interment Camps are being portrayed - - in public monuments and in schools. To learn more about the issues visit the following websites. Identify the 'revisionist' position. Debate the issues. Decide what is accurate.
1) Concentration Camp or Summer Camp? from Mother Jones
http://www.mojones.com/news_wire/ito.html
2) Japanese Relocation and Internment in the US during WWII by B. Hopgood
http://www.pnorthwestbooks.com/docs/jai_summary.html
3) Tales of American 'Concentration Camps' Perpetuate Slander by R. Estrada
http://www.pnorthwestbooks.com/docs/estrada.html
 
Imagine What Camp Life Was Like. Pretend that you are a Japanese American housed in one of the interment camps during WWII. Write a story that tells what your everyday life would have been like. Share your writing.
 
Could It Happen Again? Sixty years ago, most Japanese Americans were physically detained. Most were emotionally affected by the regretful experience. Can you envision circumstances where something similar might reoccur in the United States? Debate the possibilities. Decide what measures are needed to insure that something like it would not happen.
 
Websites By Kids For Kids
History of the Japanese-American Internment from Father Ryan High School, Nashville, TN
http://www.fatherryan.org/hcompsci/
This student project provides a comprehensive overview of Japanese-American Internment.
 
True Facts about the Time and the Real Life Account of Mr. Wayne Yamamoto
http://users.owt.com/rpeto/swisher2/index.html
This oral history project provides a biographical record on one man's experience.
Related Project from Another Student:
2) Internment Experience by Paul Ozaki's granddaughter, Pasco High School
http://users.owt.com/rpeto/wendigrand/wendi_gran.html
 
Where Are We? I Want to Go Home (Section within Through Our Eyes and Hearts and
Minds-World War II , 2001 Platinum Award ThinkQuest Junior Project)
http://library.thinkquest.org/J0110055/marissa/index-mar.html
Imagine that you were moved to a wasteland to live, powerless to go home, not knowing if you would ever see your home again.
 
More Websites
Camps by C.J. Yu
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/8420/camps.html#manzanar
This page contains a map, photographs, and information about many of the internment camps.
Related Websites:
2) Behind Barbed Wire at Amache (Colorado) http://www.du.edu/~anballar/BehindBarbedWire.html
3) Granada Japanese Internment Camp (Colorado) http://www.archives.state.co.us/wwcod/granada.htm
4) Heart Mountain Digital Preservation Project http://chem.nwc.cc.wy.us/HMDP/
5) History of Tule Lake Internment Camp and the Pilgrimages
http://www.geocities.com/tulelakecommittee/
6) Images of Manzanar http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/page12a.html
7) Japanese-Americans Internment Camps During World War II from the Univ. of Utah
http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/9066.htm
8) Japanese Americans Internment in Arkansas http://asms.k12.ar.us/armem/tsang/INDEX.HTM
9) Japanese Interment Camp Links http://www.archives.state.co.us/wwcod/grlks.htm
10) Japanese Internment Camps http://www.uwec.edu/Academic/Geography/Ivogeler/w188/j4.htm
11) Japanese Internment Camp Locations
http://www.uwec.edu/Academic/Geography/Ivogeler/w188/j2.htm
12) Kooskia Internment Camp Project from Univ. of Idaho
http://www.uidaho.edu/LS/AACC/kooskia.htm
13) List of Interment and Detention Camps http://www.momomedia.com/CLPEF/camps.html
14) Manzanar - America's Concentration Camp http://members.aol.com/EARTHSUN/Manzanar.html and http://www.qnet.com/~earthsun/manzanar.htm
15) Manzanar http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/page17a.html
16) Manzanar (Photograph) http://www.nara.gov/nara/nn/nns/ww230.jpg
17) Manzanar Relocation Camp from Masumi Hayashi Photography
http://www.csuohio.edu/art_photos/manzanar/manzanar.html
18) Topaz Camp (Utah) http://www.millardcounty.com/topazcamp.html
19) Tule Lake Relocation Center 1942 - 1946 by I. Fujimoto and D. Sunada
http://www.colostate.edu/Orgs/TuleLake/Tule%20Lake%20Menu.html
20) War Relocation Authority Camps in Arizona, 1942-1946 from University of Arizona
http://www.library.arizona.edu/wracamps/
 
Executive Order No. 9066
http://www.library.arizona.edu/images/jpamer/execordr.html
http://www.momomedia.com/CLPEF/9066.html#Anchor
Read the actual text of the February 19, 1942 presidential order.
Related Websites:
2) Chronology of the Japanese American Internment http://www.momomedia.com/CLPEF/chrono.html
3) Decision To Evacuate the Japanese from the Pacific Coast by S. Conn
http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/conn.html and
http://www.army.mil/CMH-PG/BOOKS/70-7_05.htm
4) Personal Justice Denied (Excerpt from the Congressional Report)
http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/4417/personaljusticedenied.html
 
Free to Die for Their Country (Excerpt) by E.E. Muller
http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/548228.html
The U.S. government dared to conscript Japanese American internees into the army after forcing them into internment camps on suspicion of disloyalty?
 
Historical Overview of the Japanese American Internment
http://www.momomedia.com/CLPEF/history.html
Here a brief article summarizes the events of the Japanese American interment during WWII.
 
Japanese American Internment
http://www.oz.net/~cyu/internment/main.html
This extensive website has articles, documents, and lots of links covering events preceding the war and the camp operations.
Other Comprehensive Websites:
2) Internment Camps in America (Links-site) http://www.teacheroz.com/Japanese_Internment.htm
3) Japanese-American Internment (Links-site) http://www.uen.org/themepark/html/liberty/japanese.html
 
Japanese American Internment from the U.S. Department of Justice
http://www.usdoj.gov/kidspage/crt/redress.htm
On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which began this prohibition.
 
Japanese American Internment Memorial
http://www.scu.edu/SCU/Programs/Diversity/memorial.html
This website is for the memorial in San Jose, CA.
 
Japanese Canadian Internment
http://www.lib.washington.edu/subject/Canada/internment/intro.html
The evacuation of the Japanese Canadians, or Nikkei, from the Pacific Coast in the early months of 1942 was the greatest mass movement in the history of Canada.
Related Website:
2) Japanese Internment Camps in Canada
http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/projects/canadianhistory/camps/internment1.html
 
Japanese Internment Camps: A Personal Account
http://www.uwec.edu/Academic/Geography/Ivogeler/w188/life.htm
R.O. Komoto provides the memories of her experience.
Similar Biographical Websites:
2) Child's View of Japanese-American Internment Camps by E.O. Onishi
http://www.kent.wednet.edu/staff/eonishi/jainternment/JAInternment.html
3) Japanese Internment by Aiko H. Uyeki http://www.northcoast.com/~bbn/aiko.html
4) When Americans were Treated as Traitors by D. Kazak
http://www.service.com/paw/Centennial/1994_Apr_15.1940SB.html
 
Korematsu Honored with Medal of Freedom from the ACLU News
http://www.aclunc.org/aclunews/news298/korematsu.html
This article is a tribute to Fred Korematsu and his enduring courage.
Related Websites:
2) Fred Korematsu v. United States http://ww\w.law.uh.edu/teacher/korematsu/
3) Korematsu v. United States http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/Korematsu/
4) Korematsu v. United States, Justice Roberts Dissenting http://law.touro.edu/patch/Korematsu/ROBERTS.html
 
Letters from a Japanese-American Internment Camp from NPR
http://www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/2001/may/010509.japanesecamp.html
Listen or read the radio broadcast about the exhibit at the National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C.
Related Website:
2) Forwarding Address Required from Smithsonian National Postal Museum
http://www.si.edu/postal/far/exhibit.html
 
Unofficial Nikkei Home Page
http://www.kent.wednet.edu/KSD/SJ/Nikkei/Nikkei_homePage.html
'Nikkei' at this site is used to describe four generations of Japanese living in America. This page is dedicated to them and their experiences.
 
Websites For Teachers
Bracelet (Grade 5) by I. Jones
http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/TLresources/longterm/LessonPlans/socst/JONES.html
The Year is 1942. The United States and Japan are at war. Emi is a seven-year-old Japanese American who finds herself in the middle of this conflict. Emi and her mother are forced to pack up all their things and move to a place called an internment camp.
Related Lesson:
2) Bracelet (Grade 5) A. Dent
http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/TLresources/longterm/LessonPlans/socst/Dent/DENT.HTM
 
Changing Perspectives on the Japanese Internment Experience from WNET New York
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/lessons/internment/b.html
Procedures for teachers is divided into four sections: preparing for the lesson, conducting the lesson, additional activities, and community connections.
 
Citizenship Denied: An Integrated Unit on the Japanese American Internment
http://www.intranet.csupomona.edu/~tassi/intern.htm
Using a variety of resources, students investigate and interpret diverse points of view among those interned. The lessons are organized around the central question of' 'What are our rights and responsibilities as American citizens?' The goal is to empower students to recognize social injustices and advocate for the constitutional rights of everyone.
 
Documents and Photographs Related to Japanese Relocation from National Archives
and Records Administration by D. Perry (Grades 9-12)
http://www.nara.gov/education/cc/relocate.html
This lesson relates to the First , Fourth , and Fifth Amendments to the Constitution.
 
Farewell to Manzanar (Grades 9-10) from Schools of CA Online Resources for Educators (SCORE) by J. Thompson
http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/manz/manztg.html
Students should begin this unit after they have had previous lessons on World War II and have read Farewell to Manzanar.
 
Internment of Japanese-Americans During World War II from Houghton Mifflin's EduPlace
http://www.eduplace.com/ss/hmss/4/unit/act5.2.html
Students research the daily life of Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II and write radio documentaries using what they learn.
 
Japanese American Experience: A Way to Look at Global Education (Grades 9-12)
http://www.globaled.org/curriculum/internment.html
This site houses a unit plan for exploring the World War II incarceration of Japanese Americans.
 
Using Primary and Secondary Sources to Study an American Tragedy: Japanese-American Internment during World War II by M. Solomon
http://www.uiowa.edu/~socialed/lessons/Internment.htm
This lesson plans calls for students to examine the issues and emotions involved with internment of Japanese Americans.
 
Japanese-American
Issei
Nisei
Sansei
American citizens
World War II
due process
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
racist propaganda
Holocaust
Bill of Rights
anti-Asian discrimination
loyalty
Nikkei
concentration camp
racial prejudice
eviction
martial law
'enemy aliens'
War Relocation Authority
racial profiling
Immigration & Naturalization Service
Great Depression
Japanese ancestry
barbed wire
wartime hysteria
curfew
internee
resident alien
reparations payments
relocation
Civil Liberties Act of 1988
emotional scars
ethnicity
immigration
incarceration
Redress Movement
Pearl Harbor
citizen
West Coast
Constitution of the United States
internment camp
 
 
 
Created by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson, 1/02.