Among their other accomplishments, the ancient Mayas invented
a calendar of remarkable accuracy and complexity.
2) Calendar Notes http://www.halfmoon.org/calendar.html
3) Maya Calendar from Yucatan's Maya World Studies Center http://mayacalendar.com/mayacalendar.html
4) Maya Calendar http://www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins/calendarsystem.html
5) Maya Calendar http://hermetic.nofadz.com/cal_stud/maya.htm
6) Maya Calendar http://www.michielb.nl/maya/calendar.html
7) Mayan Calendar http://www.saxakali.com/historymam7.htm
8) Mayan Calendar by K.M. Strom http://www.hanksville.org/yucatan/mayacal.html
9) Mayan Calendar Tools http://www.pauahtun.org/tools.html
Epigraphic Database Project (Advanced level material)
This project consists of a relational database of glyphs ("gnumbers"),
images, phonetic values ("pvalues"), and semantic values ("svalues")
according to the consensus among various American Mayanists (MacLeod
and Reents-Budet 1994). Also present is the beginning of an archive
of digitally transcribed Mayan texts.
Languages from Yamada Language Center from University
Here you find links to resources on Mayan language and writing.
Math by K.M. Strom
The Mayans devised a counting system that was able to represent
very large numbers by using only 3 symbols; a dot, a bar, and a
symbol for zero, or completion, usually a shell.
2) Mayan Arithmetic by S. Fought from MathForum http://mathforum.org/k12/mayan.math/
3) Maya Mathematical System from Maya World Studies Center
4) Maya Mathematics http://www.michielb.nl/maya/math.html
5) Maya Numerals by Michielb http://saxakali.com/historymam2.htm
Replicas and Rubbings by J. Patten
Stelae are monumental stones carved by the Mayan Indians in the
jungles of Central America between 300 B.C. and 900 A.D. Because
these priceless treasures are being looted by art robbers and are
crumbling from hundreds of years of jungle weather, Joan Patten,
the American artist and sculptor, set out to preserve these outstanding
Other Websites on Mayan Art:
2) Ancient Olmec and Maya Art and Sculpture from The Museo
Regional de Antropologia Carlos Pellicer
3) Imaging Maya Art by M. Miller from Archaeology http://www.archaeology.org/9705/abstracts/bonampak.html
4) Maya Art I http://members.aol.com/cabrakan/maya1.htm
5) Maya Art II - On Location at the Cities http://members.aol.com/cabrakan/maya2.htm
6) Maya Art III - Bonampak and Jaina http://members.aol.com/cabrakan/maya3.htm
7) Maya Ceramics from GB Online http://pages.prodigy.com/GBonline/mayacera.html
8) Rubbings of Maya Sculpture by M.G. Robertson
R. Hooker from World Civilizations
Here you find a description of Mayan history, their region, economy,
religion, and society.
Learn about the ancient Mesoamerican ballgames of the Maya.
2) Ball Game http://members.aol.com/cabrakan/ball.htm
3) Sacred Sports in 8th Century pre-Hispanic Mexico
of the Mayas
Here you learn about the beliefs of the Mayas.
2) Maya Religion http://www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins/religion.html#maya
3) Mayan Religious Practices
4) Mayan Gods http://www.crystalinks.com/mayangods.html
5) Mayan Gods and Mythology in Brief http://geocities.com/Athens/1044/mayangods.htm
in Maya Civilization
This timeline shows the time periods when different invading
cultures held sway in in the Northern region, in the Yucatán
region where Uxmal and Chichén Itzá are found.
Mayan Archeology & Ruins
This interactive site explores the ancient Mayan ruins of Tikal,
a city that flourished over 2,000 years ago in Central America.
2) Tikal from GB Online http://pages.prodigy.net/gbonline/tikal.html
Lost King of
the Maya from PBS NOVA Online
This site follows the work of archeologists who are using new
excavations and hieroglyphic translations to interpret the early
history of Copán, a Classic Maya site in northern Honduras.
Up of Time: The Mayan Ruins of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize & Honduras by
M. Leger from GORP
The Mayan ruins of central America are from cities that fell
into decline long before Columbus. But many of the traditions reflected
in the architecture and art from these sites live on in the modern
2) Maya Maps http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maya/mayamap.html
City of Chichén Itzá by D.W. Koeller
at North Park University
Read an article about the intact ruins of Chichen Itza and the
2) Chichén Itzá (Photos) http://www.ddbstock.com/chitza.html
3) Chichén Itzá http://members.aol.com/maroic/chichen.htm
4) Chichén Itzá from Minnesota State University
5) Chichén Itzá (Photos) from Villanova University
6) Chichén Itzá, Yucatan, Mexico http://www.sacredsites.com/1st30/pyramid.html
7) Explore Chichén Itzá and Uxmal Ruins
8) Tour Of Chichén Itzá http://www.mysteriousplaces.com/mayan/TourEntrance.html
Maya Realm by
Mayan expert gives an account of the history and archeology of
the ancient Maya ruins in Tikal.
This site provides a photographic tour of selected sites in Belize,
Guatemala, and Mexico.
2) Cities of the Maya by L. Dumois http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/travel/ldumois/maya/ldmayacity.html
3) Cities of the Ancient Maya http://www.isourcecom.com/maya/
4) Maya in Multimedia http://www.netshaman.com/maya/index.html
5) Mayan Ruins by K. Goehring http://www.snowcrest.net/goehring/maya/
Ruins of Tulum by S. Sakurai
Tulum means fence, trench or wall, and is the name given to the
site in recent times because of the wall surrounding it, although
its ancient name was possibly Zama, a corruption of Zamal (morning),
associated with the dawn.
This commercial site provides information on travel to the ancient
ruins, natural history and modern wonders of the world of the enigmatic
the Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, M.G. Robertson
This is the official homepage of a current archaeological dig
at this classic Maya site.
2) Palenque http://www.sacredsites.com/2nd56/106.html
A Mayan Legacy in Stone by R.R. Johnson
In a silent clearing among the trees, a thirty-five foot sandstone
monolith rises from the still grasses of the Motagua basin. The
hardness of the stone and the moderation of the elements have preserved
its surface much as it was carved by the hand of man over 1,200
Uxmal is one of the most well known of the Maya cities, and rated
by many archaeologists as the finest.
Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico http://www.sacredsites.com/1st30/pyrami2.html
Contemporary Mayan Life
Arte Maya Tz'utuhil
Here you find paintings and biographical information from contemporary
The People, The Land, The Struggle by S. Sady
A photographer for the Associated Press in Mexico provides
an inside look at the people, politics, land and culture of Chiapas.
2) Chiapas News http://www.chiapasnews.ukgateway.net/
3) Chiapas Pt. 1 - Pro-Zapatista Graffiti and More! from Kavaitha's
4) Tragedy in Chiapas, Part 2 - Civil War from Mexico Trek http://www.worldtrek.org/odyssey/mexico/91998/91798team.html
5) Understanding Chiapas by P. Rosset with S. Cunningham
6) Understanding The Chiapas Revolt In Mexico by P. Rosset
Learn about the Lacandon Maya communities; indigenous peoples
of La Selva Lacandona in Chiapas, Mexico.
of Sky: The Resurgence of Mayan Spirituality by B.
Greider from University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
Mayan Spirituality is complex, multivocal, and dynamic. The living
traditions and new movements are expanding and reinterpreting in
the context of highly charged sociocultural developments in Guatemala.
of the Modern Maya by A.M.H. Schuster from Archaeology
This article maintains that a strong undercurrent of pre-Columbian
belief pervades much of today's religious practice.
Schools for Chiapas
Learn about the alternative education system that is rapidly
emerging in the misty mountains and steamy jungles of the Mexican
southeast. Indian children in hundreds of Maya communities throughout
the state of Chiapas are attending new volunteer run Zapatista schools.
These centers promote indigenous language and tradition while striving
for academic excellence and cultural survival.
Art of Chipas Maya from Science Museum of Minnesota
In the state of Chiapas in southwestern Mexico, Maya-speaking
women weave intricate designs into their textiles by adding colored
yarn into the warp and weft of their backstrap looms.
Websites For Teachers
and Challenges of Guatemala
This unit focuses on some of those aspects of Guatemalan life
and history (Maya) that are of great significance.
That As It Maya: Investigating Life in Mayan Cities (Grades
6-12) from New York Times
In this lesson, students create brochures and postcards that
might have been created by and for travelers to ancient Mayan cities.
of the Maya from Glencoe McGraw-Hill
Students compare the cities of the Maya with those of one other
early civilization by collecting information on the two civilizations.
Inca, Maya (Grade 5) by L. Eberle & S. Milton from Core
This 15-lesson unit plan is designed to lead learners to understand
the complex nature of cultures, how belief systems affect a society's
actions, how thriving societies maximize their resources, and to
develop an awareness of place.
Related Lesson from Core Knowledge:
2) Maya, Inca, and Aztec (Grade 5) by L. Berman http://www.coreknowledge.org/CKproto2/resrcs/lessons/52K_Maya.pdf
Maya News Report (Grades 9-12) from Discovery School
Students will understand the relationships between Maya city-states
during the classical period.
The site houses three lessons with a common focus on the Maya
culture. In addition, a few of the resource links are still active.
Culture (Grades 5-7) from Schools of California
Online Resources for Educators (SCORE)
This teacher cyberguide is designed to extend the students' knowledge
of the Mayan culture, especially their food, recreation, number
system and language.
Why did the lowland Mayans (of Guatemala, western Honduras, and
southern Mexico) seemingly disappear in the ninth century after
1000 years of dominance in the region?
Created by Annette
Lamb and Larry
- The Topic:
- Easier - Ancient Maya had a highly
structured civilization that thrived in southern Mexico and Central
America around year 1000. In the 1500s, the Maya were discovered,
conquered, and almost totally destroyed by invading Spanish.
Today's Maya are descendants of that American Indian tribe.
- Harder - Maya people once dominated
the region that is now eastern and southern Mexico, Guatemala,
Belize, El Salvador, and western Honduras. Prior to the sixteenth
century arrival of Europeans, they developed one of the most
advanced Native American civilizations in the western hemisphere.
Without metal tools, the Maya constructed massive stone pyramids
and temples. They created stone sculptures and painted elaborate
murals. They also recorded events in hieroglyphs, a form of pictorial
writing. Their most complex achievements were in astronomy and
mathematics. Maya used a numbering system and could complete
abstract and complicated calculations. They developed a pair
of interlocking calendars. One calendar was based on the position
of the sun and contained 365 days. The other was a sacred 260-day
almanac. Designation of any given day involved combining the
name for the sun calendar day and the sacred almanac day.
- The Maya culture's greatest period was from about year 300
to 900 AD. After that zenith, the Maya mysteriously declined
in Guatemala's southern lowlands, but later their culture revived
in the Yucatán Peninsula. There the Maya continued to
dominate until the Spanish conquest. Today's Maya descendants
still comprise a large segment of that region's population, living
their lives as peasant farmers. They speak a mixture of Mayan
and Spanish languages. One tribal group, the Lacandón
people of Mexico, still makes pilgrimages to worship the ancient
gods among the ruins of the pyramids and temples.
- Jaguar Sun by
- This site provides an introduction to the ancient and present
day Maya culture.
- Related Websites:
- 2) Maya Civilization http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/learning/newworld/maya/mmc01eng.html
- 3) Maya Civilization Then and Now from Mexico Connect
- 4) Mayan Civilization http://www.indians.org/welker/maya.htm
- 5) Mayans http://www.crystalinks.com/mayan.html
- 6) Mayans http://mexico.udg.mx/historia/precolombinas/ingles/maya/
- 7) Mundo Maya http://www.mayadiscovery.com/
- 8) Rabbit in the Moon: Mayan Glyphs and Architecture http://www.halfmoon.org/
Civilization - Past & Present by P.Giese
- This comprehensive links-site connects to resources on Mayans
throughout history including their language, culture, and contributions
to mathematics and astronomy.
- Related Section:
- 2) Maya Links http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maya/maya1.html
- Related Links-sites:
- 3) Maya http://www.rose-hulman.edu/%7Edelacova/mayas.htm
- 4) Mayans from NativeWeb
- Mayan Kids
- See photos, use the glossary, and learn interesting facts about
these ancient people.
of the Maya from the Canadian Museum of Civilization
- Learn about Mayan civilization, view a timeline and glossary
of terms, or check out slide show pictures.
- Not-To-Be-Missed Section:
- 2) Maya Civilization http://www.civilization.ca/civil/maya/mmc01eng.html
- Other Online Museum Exhibits:
- 3) Images of the Maya from Florida Museum of Natural History http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/maya/
- 4) Maya: The Lost Kingdom of the Rainforest from Didrichsen
- 5) Maya: Portraits of a People from McClung Museum
- After visiting several of the websites, complete
one or more of the following activities:
- Play A Mayan Game. Follow the procedures
found at Play
Bul, A Mayan Game of Chance from Half Moon.
- Solve The Mystery Of Mayan Glyphs. Join National
Geographic's Amazing Travel Bureau and solve
of the Maya Glyphs. You can also write your
name in Mayan glyphs by following the procedures
found at How
to Write Your Name In Mayan Glyphs.
- Read A Mayan Folktale. You will find some
stories that were translated by F. Peñalosa
at (1) Mayan
Folktales. Others can be found at (2) Maya
Stories and (3) The
- Complete A Maya WebQuest. Adapt or follow
the procedures found at one of the following webQuest
- 1) Ancient Maya WebQuest http://web.nmsu.edu/%7Eaahmad/WebQuest.htm
- 2) International Human Rights (Grades 10-12, Activity
on today's Maya)
- 3) On the Day You Were Born (Grades 9-10) by M.
Abbatinozzi, M. Lopes, M. Ricci, & E. Sapochetti
- 4) Maya Adventure from Science Museum of Minnesota http://www.sci.mus.mn.us/sln/ma/
- 5) Maya and Inca WebQuest http://www.scarsdaleschools.k12.ny.us/mslib/webquestmayainca.html
- 6) Vanishing Act . . . What Happened to the Ancient
Maya? (Grade 6) by A. Kelly
- Compare and Contrast Maya To Aztec Or Inca Civilization. You
can learn more about the other ancient Mesoamerican
Civilizations at Aztecs and Incas,
both from eduScapes 42eXplore. Pick One to
research and compare with Maya Civilization. Identify
the characteristics of both cultures; greatest achievements,
time periods and locations, decline and causes, etc.
How were they alike and how did they differ? Create
a multimedia presentation that summarizes your findings.
- Construct A Model of Mayan Architecture. Construct
a model of a Maya home, a temple, or pyramid. Use
the websites and other library media resources to
make your model as authentic as possible.
- Plan A Trip To Your Favorite Maya Location. Select
a favorite Maya location. This could be a modern
Maya area or an ancient ruin. In addition to the
websites provided, you may find useful information
at (1) Lonely
Planet and (2) MapQuest.
For travel arrangements, you may want to use (3) Expedia,
and/or (5) Orbitz.
Detail all aspects of your simulated travel including
travel dates and itinerary, activities, methods of
transportation, and expected costs for the trip.
Be as thorough as possible and include tables, illustrations,
and photos where appropriate.
- Websites By Kids For Kids
Maya from The William Penn Charter School Sixth
- Learn about the ancient Maya civilization.
- Related Student Projects:
- 2) Maya from Kent School District http://www.kent.wednet.edu/KSD/SB/Ancient/Maya.html
- From Our
World to Theirs: The Ancient Maya (2001 ThinkQuest
- Students became "archaeologists" and used a variety of resources
to locate facts and compile information about the Ancient Maya.
They each chose a sub topic area to focus on: archaeological
sites, hieroglyphs, mathematics and calendar astronomy, or the
Maya today as their final project.
- Related Projects:
- 2) Mayan Culture (1999 ThinkQuest Junior project) http://tqjunior.thinkquest.org/5891/
- 3) Maya (2001 ThinkQuest Junior project) http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112511/
- 4) Mayans: The Masters of Mystery (2000 ThinkQuest Junior project) http://library.thinkquest.org/J001788/
- 5) Mayan World (2001 ThinkQuest Junior project) http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112364/
- La Cultura
Maya (2000 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
- This site provides information about the ancient Maya culture
in America. The Maya developed advanced concepts in astronomy,
math, and architecture.
- Related Projects:
- 2) Civilization of the Mayans (1997 ThinkQuest Internet
- 3) Maya Explorer: A Study of the Mayas (2000 ThinkQuest
Math? We Don't Think So (2001 ThinkQuest Junior project)
- This site teaches about one part of the Mayan civilization
. . . their math.
- More Websites
- Maya from Annenberg/CPB's
Collaspe: Why Civilizations Fall
- Looking at the impressive remains of ancient Maya civilization,
it's hard to imagine how such a society could collapse.
- Not-To-Be-Missed Sections:
- 2) Looking for Clues at Copán http://www.learner.org/exhibits/collapse/copan/index.php
- 3) Understanding Collapse http://www.learner.org/exhibits/collapse/mayans_sub.html
- Related Websites:
- 4) Could a Changed Climate be Responsible for the Fall of the
Mighty Maya? from The Why
- Files, University of Wisconsin http://whyfiles.org/021climate/calamity.html
- 5) Too Warm For The Maya by K. Wong http://www.calacademy.org/calwild/spring2001/stories/maya2.html
- Maya Astronomy Page
- Learn about Mayan mathematics as well as their calendar, writing
system, and understanding of astronomy.
Codices from GB Online
- View ancient writing of the Mayans. These books were written
on bark paper or animal skin, using unique writing systems that
evolved before the conquest.
- Related Webpages:
- 2) Hieroglyphs and History of Copán (Advanced level)
by D. Stuart
- 3) Maya from Ancient Scripts http://www.ancientscripts.com/maya.html
- 4) Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing http://www.halfmoon.org/writing.html
- 5) Maya Writing Systems http://www.angelfire.com/ca/humanorigins/writing.html#maya
Government from Mesoamerican Governments
- This site summarizes a Maya expert's, R.J. Sharer, view of
- Related Website:
- 2) Maya Government http://www.kidsnewsroom.com/elmer/infocentral/frameset/civilizations/maya/gov/
Architecture by C. Moore
- Long ago the pre-Columbian Mayans built highly complex cities
and mammoth structures without the invention of the wheel or
domesticated animals. Their limited architectural and engineering
knowledge enabled them to strengthen their civilization by creating
wondrous religious centers.
- Related Websites:
- 2) Maya Architecture by M. Lominy http://www.mayafiles.com
- 3) Mayan Architecture http://www.mayadiscovery.com/ing/archaeology/architecture.htm
- (Scroll down the index to click on the site - but its worth
the Java hassle)