- Easier - The medieval
period in history was between the 5th and 15th centuries.
Also called the Middle Ages, it was a time of change in
Western Europe. It began with the fall of the Roman
Empire to invading German tribes. Western Europe broke
into many separate kingdoms. Trade collapsed, people made
their living from the land, and the feudal system began.
The early Middle Ages are called the "Dark Ages" because
the learning and culture of ancient Greece and Rome
almost disappeared. The medieval period ended when the
Renaissance swept across Europe.
- Harder - The medieval
period, also known as the Middle Ages, was the era
between ancient and modern times. Before medieval times,
all of western Europe was part of the Roman Empire. Exact
dates for the beginning and end of these eras do not
exist. Rather the fall of the Roman Empire happened over
a period of several hundred years as the Roman Empire
weakened and Germanic tribes from the Scandinavian
regions were able to conquer, eventually leading to a new
way of life.
- Compared to the citizenry of Ancient Rome, most
Germans were uneducated. They were a rough-looking people
clothed in animal skins and coarse linen. Called
barbarians, these fierce people lived in tribes governed
by a chief. They lived mainly by hunting and employing a
crude level of farming. Their laws were based on tribal
customs and superstition rather than a strong system of
laws. They were fierce and bold warriors, battling with
spears, clubs, and shields.
- The barbarian invasions destroyed most of the
European trade. The stone road system that was developed
to connect prosperous cities of the Roman Empire was
abandoned. Communication slowed; money almost went
completely out of use. By the ninth century AD, most of
western Europe was carved into large manor estates ruled
by landlords. Most people became poor peasants who worked
the land. Some towns were completely abandoned and
disappeared as the people moved to the countryside. Each
manor was supported almost entirely by the production of
its inhabitants. Most of the state and city schools
closed and education and cultural activities ceased. Few
people could read or write and the developments of
ancient literature, architecture, painting, and sculpture
- Medieval life eventually combined the ways of
Germanic people with practices of ancient Rome and
Greece, but was also influenced by the Muslims of Spain
and the Middle East and the Byzantine Empire of
southeastern Europe. Some adopted elements of their Roman
neighbors, accepting Christianity as their religion,
farming the land, and trading with merchants. The church
became the single great force that bound Europe together
during this feudal period.
Medieval Sourcebook by P. Halsall
- This huge site contains information on various time
periods and medieval topics.
- Other Comprehensive Websites:
- 2) Medieval Europe from Exploring Ancient World
Cultures at University of Evansville
- 3) Medieval Europe by E.L. Knox http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/medieval/
- 4) Medieval World by N.B. Mautz from Development
of Western Civilization http://history.evansville.net/medieval.html
- 5) WWW Medieval Resources (Literature and culture) by
D.W. Mosser at Virginia Tech
- 6) WWW Virtual Library: History Index of Medieval
Europe from Michigan State University
Resources for Medieval Studies by D. Everhart and
M. Irvine from Georgetown University
- This is a standard starting point for medieval
studies on the Internet.
- Other Starting Point Sites:
- 2) Medieval Studies from Stanford University
- 3) NetSERF by A.C. Harbin http://www.netserf.org/
Ages from the eMuseum at Minnesota
State University at Mankato
- Take a journey into medieval times on guided tours
offered by a knight, a merchant, a nun, and a
- Related Websites About Life in Medieval
- 2) Grantchester: A Medieval Village http://www.calvin.edu/academic/history/village/
- 3) Medieval England - Daily Life in Medieval Towns
- 4) Middle Ages http://radiantworks.com/middleages/
- 5) Middle Ages http://www.byu.edu/ipt/projects/middleages/index.html#index
- 6) Middle Ages from Annenberg/CPB http://www.learner.org/exhibits/middleages/
- 7) Medieval English Towns http://orb.rhodes.edu/encyclop/culture/towns/towns.html
- The Online Resource Book for Medieval Studies
(ORB) is a cooperative effort on the part of scholars
across the Internet to establish an online textbook
source for medieval studies on the Web.
- You may also want to visit these related
websites: (1) Renaissance,
and (4) Castles
- - also from eduScapes
- Websites By Kids For Kids
and Domination of the Gentle Sex: The Lives of Medieval
Women (1997 ThinkQuest Internet
- The day-to-day lives of medieval women of all classes
and callings are often glossed over in modern history
courses in favor of sequences of events. Not so here.
This is the '"City of Women."
and Heralds: A Study of Medieval England (2002
- This website about medieval England covers dragons,
knights, unicorns, music, royalty, castles, Robin Hood,
medicine and more.
Medieval Times (2000 ThinkQuest
- Here you will journey back in time to learn about
kings, queens, peasants, castles, knights, and more.
- Related ThinkQuest Junior Projects:
- 2) Medieval Madness (2000) http://library.thinkquest.org/J002306/
- 3) Medieval Realms (2002) http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0211920/
- 4) Medieval Times (2000) http://library.thinkquest.org/J001768/
Madness (Grade 6)
- Welcome all ye lords and ladies of the manor! Enter
this site to learn of the time in history we call the
Times from Elanora Heights Primary
- Here you can read summaries about kings, artists,
poets, and other interesting folks from this era, like
Robin Hood, King Arthur, and Da Vinci.
- Similar Student Project Sites:
- 2) Life in the Middle Ages (Grades 4-5) http://www.kyrene.k12.az.us/schools/brisas/sunda/ma/mahome.htm
- 3) Middle Ages http://www.asmilan.org/eschool/middle_ages/
Warfare (2002 ThinkQuest USA)
- This site has information about the different areas
of warfare in the medieval times.
of Castles by P. Hover & D. Olivier (1997
ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
- If you're interested in buying a castle, or maybe
just curious about castles and what it's like to live in
one, check out the extensive listing of the world's
- Related Websites:
- 2) Ian's Land of Castles by I. Burns
- 3) Medieval Castle (2000 ThinkQuest Internet
- 4) Medieval Castles (2001 ThinkQuest Junior
- 5) Welcome to the Manor: A Guide through Medieval
Life (2002) http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0213647/
- More Websites
Anglo-Saxon Living History 400-900 AD
- This group seeks to recreate all aspects of life in
the period; food, crafts, warfare, pastimes, in fact
everything that made up the life of these first English
- Related Websites:
- 2) Anglo-Saxon Culture
- 3) Regia Anglorum: Anglo-Saxon, Viking, Norman and
British Living History http://www.regia.org/index.html
of the Middle Ages by C. Witcombe
- Here you find an extensive collection of web-links
covering art of the Medieval period.
- Battle of
- This site site offers a fascinating view of how the
confluence of cultures shaped a nation; an in-depth look
at Angles, Saxons, and Jutes and their roles in the
history of England.
Legend: Arthur Reconsidered by C.A. Richmond from
The Concord Review
- Written from the assumption that King Arthur did
indeed exist, this paper endeavors to examine this
'fictional' character's historicity, using the available
resources to prove the thesis.
of Gode Cookery
- Each historically accurate recipe is written in both
Middle English and contemporary English, and each
includes modifications for the modern kitchen. The only
hard part will be deciding between Dragontail and Lardy
Jacks & Johnny Boys.
- Related Sites:
- 2) Medieval and Anglo Saxon Recipes
- 3) Medieval European Recipes Collection from J.A.
- 4) Medieval/Renaissance Food Homepage from Society
for Creative Anachronism http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/food.html
on the Web
- Castles on the Web offers castle links, castle
photos, castle site of the day, castles for kids, free
castle web pages and more!
- Other Castle Resources:
- 2) Castle Learning Center http://www.castles-of-britain.com/castle6.htm
- 3) Castles of Wales http://www.castlewales.com/home.html
- 4) Castles - Medieval http://www.scotch.vic.edu.au/Library/infores/intsites/subjects/history/medcast.htm
- 5) Kids' Castle http://kotn.ntu.ac.uk/castle/
- 6) Life in a Medieval Castle http://www.castlewales.com/life.html
- In its hundred stories, shared in ten days by ten
young people escaping the Plague in mid-14th-century
Florence, this medieval book combines sheer entertainment
with a meaningful humanistic message.
- The Domesday book was commissioned in December 1085
by William the Conqueror, who invaded England in 1066.
The first draft was completed in August 1086 and
contained records for 13,418 settlements in the English
counties south of the rivers Ribble and Tees (the border
with Scotland at the time).
of the Middle Ages by I.M. Carlson
- This site provides a detailed description of shoes
worn during the Middle Ages.
for Medieval Art and Architecture
- Here you can get definitions and illustrations of
words like sarcophagus, atrium, and jamb. Hear their
to Medieval and Renaissance Instruments (Musical
- This website provides sounds, pictures, and
descriptions of instruments used during these time
- Related Website:
- 2) Instruments of Música Antigua http://www.la.unm.edu/~davies/MAA/instruments.html
on the Internet
- Designed to help conduct heraldry searches, this site
provides information on coat of arms and contains clip
art. There are links to arm and armor, flags, and other
- Related Website:
- 2) Heraldry Origins - The Origins and Meaning of
Heraldry by J.C. Wolf
- Images of
Medieval Art and Architecture by A. Stones
- The purpose of this site is to promote education and
research in Medieval art and architecture.
of England, 1066, an EyeWitness Account
from Ibis Communications, Inc.
- King Edward of England (called "The Confessor"
because of his construction of Westminster Abbey) died on
January 5, 1066, after a reign of 23 years. Leaving no
heirs, Edward's passing ignited a three-way rivalry for
the crown that culminated in the Battle of Hastings and
the destruction of the Anglo-Saxon rule of England.
- Other EyeWitness Accounts from Ibis
- 2) Crusaders Capture Jerusalem, 1099 http://www.ibiscom.com/crusades.htm
- 3) Murder of Thomas Becket, 1170 http://www.ibiscom.com/becket.htm
- 4) Richard The Lionheart Massacres The Saracens, 1191
- 5) Kublai Khan In Battle, 1287 http://www.ibiscom.com/khan.htm
- 6) Black Death, 1348 http://www.ibiscom.com/plague.htm
Chivalry & Tournament Resource Library
- Here is information on swordsmanship, arms and armor,
Tres Riches Heures Du Duc de Berry
- The Tres Riches Heures is the classic example of a
medieval book of hours. The pictures in this directory
are from the calendar section of the Tres Riches Heures.
This was painted some time between 1412 and 1416 and is
arguably the most beautiful part of the manuscript; it is
certainly the best known, being one of the great art
treasures of France.
Anthology of Middle English Literature
(1350-1485) by A. Jokinen.
- This site provides a starting point for students and
enthusiasts of English Literature.
in Medieval and Early Modern Europe
- Medicine during the Medieval period changed in a
number of ways, often for the worse.
- Related Website:
- 2) Health from Annenberg/CPB http://www.learner.org/exhibits/middleages/morhealt.html
& Renaissance Europe: Primary Historical
Documents from Brigham Young
- This centralized site contains links to many valuable
and some trivial documents of the Middle Ages. The
materials include facsimiles and English translations of
religious texts, political agreements, and social
commentary -- from the Crusades to the Holy Roman
and Renaissance Wedding Page by K.S. Thomas
- This site provides an overview of Christian wedding
customs in Western Europe during the Middle Ages and the
Britain Index from Britannia
- This index connects to articles on history,
biographies, activities, and events of the Middle
- Related Websites:
- 2) Timeline of Medieval Britain from Britannia
European Costume Links from The Costumer's
- Are you interested in how they dressed in Medieval
times? This site links to several online resources.
Manuscript Manual from the Department of
Medieval Studies at Central European
- Learn about the history of books, their function and
use, structure and typology, the use of illumination, and
- Related Websites:
- 2) Making an Illustrated Cover Illustration by R.
- 3) Manuscripts, Books, and Maps: The Printing Press
and a Changing World http://communication.ucsd.edu/bjones/Books/booktext.html
- 4) Some Medieval Manuscripts http://www-physics.mps.ohio-state.edu/~prewett/medieval.html
Metalwork and Enamels from the National
Gallery of Art
- This exhibit features features eight works from
different centuries. Each of the object types originally
served sacred purposes.
- This collection of articles provides authentic names
for the medieval and renaissance time periods.
Science Page by J. McNelis
- This site links to resources which deal with aspects
of medieval science, both in Western and other
Technology by P.J. Gans from New York
- Learn about items of daily life - - information on
technological innovation and related subjects in western
Europe during the Middle Ages.
- Medieval Women:
An Interactive Exploration
- This interactive presentation conveys what it might
have been like to live as a woman in the Middle
- Related Website:
- 2) Women in the Middle Ages http://www.usm.maine.edu/~flc/emily.htm
Siege from PBS NOVA's Secrets of Lost
- Here, experts examine medieval war strategies,
weapons, and castle design. See how the devastating giant
trebuchet could smash castle walls!
Byzantine Period: The "Second Golden Age" of
Byzantium from The Metropolitan Museum of
- As Western Europe sank into the Dark Ages, the
Eastern Empire rose in prominence and splendor.
- Here are annotated links to texts, manuscript images,
historical resources, courses and other educational
resources relevant to Old English literature.
Medieval and Classical Library (OMACL)
- Here is a collection of some of the most important
literary works of Classical and Medieval
and Highwaymen by G. Spragg
- This site draws on street ballads and social
commentary, reportage and satire, gossip and high
literature, popular anecdotes and criminal biographies in
charting the images of the highway robber.
- Society for Creative
- This international organization is dedicated to
researching and re-creating pre-17th-century European
history. Don't get lost in this huge resource!
- Related Website:
- 2) Sir Clisto Seversword's Tome of Adventure &
Knowledge by J.M. Brunette http://www.sirclisto.com/clisto2.html
Beckett by S. McLetchie
- This website is devoted to collecting resources for
the study of Thomas Becket and the controversies
- An architectural masterpiece of the thirteenth to
sixteenth centuries, Westminster Abbey also presents a
unique pageant of British history - the Confessors
Shrine, the tombs of Kings and Queens, and countless
memorials to the famous and the great.
- Related Websites:
- 2) Arches from BBC Online http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/games/arches/arches.html
- 3) Wells Cathedral http://www.wellscathedral.org.uk/
- 4) Wells Cathedral from BBC Online http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/cathedral/colour/game.html
- Websites For Teachers
Called Birdie (Grades 6-9) by M. Densmore &
J. Nolasco from Schools of California Online Resources
for Educators (SCORE)
- This cyberguide for the Karen Cushman book,
Catherine, Called Birdy addresses the girl,
Catherine, moving into adolescence and her objections to
the many rich suitors arranged by her father. It also
focuses on Christianity in the Middle Ages.
Wife of Bath (Grades 9-12) from
- This lesson introduces students to one of the most
admired characterizations in Chaucer's The Canterbury
Tales, the Wife of Bath.
Arthurian Legend (Grades 9-12) from
- The goals of this lesson plan are to examine the
historical origins of the Arthurian legend; to
investigate how medieval historians and storytellers
reflected the concerns of their own times in their
treatment of the legend; to gain insight into the use of
literature as historical evidence.
The Prince (Grades 9-12) from Discovery
- Students examine and evaluate Machiavellis
controversial enumeration of leadership qualities for a
Feasts (Grades 3-4) by C. Cox, N. Kessler, K.
Helton and S. Hanson from AskERIC
. . .
- To familiarize students with a social aspect of the
Middle Ages, with great feast being the focus of this
Law and Order
- This worksheet explains Medieval Law and Order by
covering trial by ordeal and Henry II's changes to
- Related Documents:
- 2) Church http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/year7links/church/medievalchurch.pdf
- 3) Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages http://www.activehistory.co.uk/worksheets/yr7/crime.doc
- 4) Foul Food in Medieval England
. . .
- 5) How Did the Villagers People Punish . . .
TimesA Novel Study Using Literature Circles
(Grades 6-8) from C·R·E·A·T·E
- This cooperative novel study is done in conjunction
with a history emphasis on the Middle Ages.
Ages: Twelve Activities Take Students Back in
Time! (Grades 4-5) from Education
- Learn how a unit on the Middle Ages inspired great
writing; includes a dozen activities for teaching.
Resources from The Labyrinth
- This links-page connects to outlines, syllabi, and
assignments for courses in Medieval studies.
Medieval (Grades K-5) from Discovery
- Knights in shining armor, tales of valor and bravery,
magnificent castles rising out of the mist-they're all
here in this four-part lesson (Accompanies a TLC video
series) that looks at the Age of Chivalry.
of Lost Empires II -- Medieval Siege from PBS
- This lesson designed to accompany the television
program has students design a working model of a
trebuchet and demonstrate the power of a Class 1
king & queen
knight & knighthood
- Created by