The Topic:
World War I

This World War I project from eduScapes encompasses numerous websites. In order to organize some of those resources, two additional pages were constructed: (1) Battles, Campaigns, & Events of W.W.I and (2) Biographies of World War I. Don't miss those supplemental pages for this 42eXplore project and check out the hundreds of additional websites that are arranged there.
Easier - World War I began in 1914 and lasted until 1918. Fighting took place in Africa, the Middle East, and the Atlantic and Pacific, but most of the war was fought in Europe. Also called the First World War or the Great War, the terrible conflict involved almost thirty countries. Warring countries formed two groups. Allies siding with Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and the United States included Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. They fought the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. Fearsome battles took place on land, sea, and in the air, and millions of soldiers died. Germany finally made a treaty with the Allied forces, losing much territory and taking the blame for starting the war.
Harder - World War I (1914-1918) engaged more countries and caused more destruction than any other war up to that time. Touched off by an assassin's bullets and a web of military alliances, the conflict quickly engulfed the major European powers. Each side anticipated quick victory, but the conflict lasted for four miserable years and took the lives of near ten million people.
This war involved vast quantities of newly invented weapons capable of inflicting tremendous damage. These included artillery, machine guns, tanks, battleships, U-boats, torpedoes, bombing from zeppelins, and poison gas. The war mired down with its western front stretching across northern France in a line of zigzagging trenches from Switzerland to the English Channel. Neither side had an army strong enough to win an overpowering victory. Life in the trenches was miserable. Soldiers were often mired in mud up to their knees, freezing in winter and sweltering in summer. Rats and lice added to their ever present discomfort. Communication with home was so sporadic and censored that people had little knowledge of the real war conditions. Wartime propaganda spread by posters and newspapers was aimed at persuading people that the enemies were evil, that the war must go on, and that everyone should help by fighting, working, raising monies, and making sacrifices.. In the end after the Treaty of Versailles, some wondered what this "war to end all wars" had achieved.
Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century from PBS
This companion Web site provides greater depth to the events, places and figures addressed in the television series.
Related Websites:
2) Eyewitness to World War I
3) Fallen Heroes from Tideway School in East Sussex
4) First World War from Veterans Affairs Canada
5) Great War: 80 Years On from BBC News
6) In Flanders Fields from Flanders Fields Museum
7) Wars & Conflict: World War One from BBC
8) World War I from BBC Schools
Great War Society
This is a comprehensive website covering major events and aspects of First World War.
Other WWI Websites:
2) A to Z of World War One
3) Canada and the First World War
4) Canada and the First World War from The National Archives of Canada
5) Canadian Great War Homepage
6) Doughboy Center
7) Encyclopaedia of the First World War from Spartacus Educational
8) Fallen Heroes from Tideway Community School
9) First World War 1914-1918 by R. Brouwer
10) First World War by M. Duffy
11) Great European & World War by M.A. Forsythe
12) Great War 1914-1918 by T. Novosel
13) Heritage of the Great War 1914-1918 by E. Wereldoorlog
14) Out of the Crucible of War: The Great War by W. Landen, Billy Bishop Museum
15) World War I
16) World War I from Internet Modern History Sourcebook
17) World War I (1914-1918) from SparkNotes
18) World War I Command Centre
19) World War I - Trenches on the Web by M. Iavarone
Women in World War One: Thirty Thousand Women Were There
In 1901 and 1908 the establishment of the Army and Navy Nurse Corps opened the door for women in the military but ever so slightly. It wasn't until the United States got involved in World War One that some parts of the government got serious about using woman power.
Other War Service Sites:
2) "Everything was Going to be Different": Suffrage, War, and Women’s Work 1832-1918
3) Home Fires of Huntington . . . by M.J. McCarthy from Don Mabry's Historical Text Archive
4) "Mademoiselle Miss"
5) Nurse Helen Fairchild: My Aunt, My Hero from World War I Primary Document Archive
6) Unsung Women of World War One: The Signal Corps Women
7) Women and War from Spartacus Encyclopaedia of the First World War
8) Women During the First World War
9) Women in the U.S. Navy: Historic Documents
10) Women's International League for Peace from Spartacus Educational
11) Women's Peace Party from Spartacus Educational
12) Women were Vital to Military Success in War by C. Smith, Seattle Post-Intelligencer
World War I Document Archive or
This archive of primary documents from World War I has been assembled by volunteers of the World War I Military History List (WWI-L).
Related Websites:
2) American Leaders Speak: From War to Normalcy from Library of Congress
3) First World War Album from Imperial War Museum
4) Great War in a Different Light
5) Great War Series from War Time Journal
6) Images of World War I: The Western Front
7) Maps of World War I
8) Photos of the Great War
9) Recollections of War from the Imperial War Museum
After visiting several of the projects, complete one or more of the following activities.
What Really Caused World War One? Examine the websites that propose theories of why this war occurred. Then decide what the main causes of the war actually were. Prioritize them as to their importance and justify their inclusion. Put together a PowerPoint presentation that summarizes your findings. Present it to your classmates. You might want to design a survey to assess their opinion before your presentation, and follow up with the survey afterwards to see if you changed any opinions.
Complete A World War I WebQuest. Adapt or follow the instructions found at the following webQuest sites:
1) Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand from Spartacus Educational
2) Rise of WWI (Grades 6-12)
3) Some Missing Pages: A Soldier's Life
4) War to End All Wars by B. Sovel
5) Who Was Responsible For World War I? by S. P. Thorpe
6) World War I by M. Oulton
7) World War I WebQuest
8) World War I WebQuest: All Quiet on the Western Front by C. Adams
9) World War 1 WebQuest "And You Are There..." and Update from Education World
Debate Whether WWI Should Have Occurred. First research the conditions that led up and precipitated the widespread warring. Decide which side you will debate. You may find assistance at another 42eXplore project, Debate.
Read A WWI Tale. You can find several good books for the First World War in your library media center. All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque tells what happens to a group of German teenagers during World War I. If you want to read a Pulitzer Prize winning novel of a Midwestern American's journey to the front, go to Willa Cather's 1922 One of Ours from You also might want to read some of the poetry of Siegfried Sassoon, the English poet and novelist, who served as an officer in World War I. Sassoon expressed his conviction of the brutality and waste of war in grim, forceful, realistic verse.
Take An Online Quiz On The First World War. See how you do with First World War from The Corner, a quiz on the background of the First War World. It's self grading. Examine your quiz results for a greater understanding of the conditions leading to WWI.
Speculate On An Alternative To WWI. Many have called this a war that should not have occurred. What situations do you see as the most likely alternative? Write a story that details your alternative history.
Create A Mural Map Of The World War I. Show where the major events occurred and illustrate them on your map.
Write A Trench Warfare Journal. Read about life in the trenches at several of the WWI websites. Then, write a journal that describes day-to-day life there.
Compare Women's Role In The War. This First World War involved women in many different roles. Select another major war in history and compare and contrast female's roles. Identify similar roles and what new roles occurred.
Websites By Kids For Kids
Take a virtual tour of some of the battlefields as they appear today; be sure to view the introduction.
Great War Experience from Tideway School in East Sussex
This website will tell and show you of the students' 'Great War' experiences and what they found out about the war.
More Websites for WWI
Learn about the aces and the aircraft of World War I.
Related Websites:
2) Air Aces of World War One
3) Airplanes of World War I
4) Australian Flying Corps from First World War
5) First World War
6) Great War in the Air
7) Illustrated History of World War I Aviation
8) Legendary Aviators and Aircraft of World War One
9) Over the Front from League of World War I Aviation Historians
10) Sopwith Triplane
11) Story about the Airbattles in World War 1 by J. Gallagher
12) Warbirds—Fighter Planes of WWI by K. Cox
13) World War I Aviation Page
Aftermath: When the Boys Came Home
The aftermath years were a time of paradox, where the men who returned from the horrors of the trenches wanted to forget, and where those who had stayed behind, and had lost husbands and brothers, and sons and fathers were equally determined never to forget.
Related Website:
2) Economic Consequences of the Peace by J.M. Keynes
3) Financial Cost of the First World War from Spartacus Educational
4) Heritage of the Great War
5) President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points from Avalon Project, Yale Law School
6) Truth about the Treaty by A. Tardieu
7) Versailles Treaty
8) Was the Great War Necessary? by B. Schwarz from Atlantic Online
9) World War I Ends with German Defeat from The History Place
Art of the First World War
This is an exhibition of 110 paintings brought together by the major history museums of Europe to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the Armistice. The aim is not to review the facts of the war, but to show how they were portrayed by artists on either side of the front line, and indicate the difficulties involved.
Related Websites:
2) Battlefield Art of Mary Riter Hamilton from Trenches on the Web
3) Canvas of War from Canadian War Museum
4) Fatal Salient from the Imperial War Museum
5) No Man's Land: The Battlefield Paintings of Mary Riter Hamilton from CM Magazine,
Manitoba Library Association
6) U.S. Army Official War Artists from Doughboy Center
7) War Artists of World War One from SchoolNet Digital Collections & Industry Canada
8) World War One Art and Artists
World War I by B.J. McRae, Jr. from Lest We Forget
This links-page connects you to information about African-Americans in World War I.
Related Website:
2) Afro-American Soldiers from Spartacus Educational
3) Black Yankee: An Interview with Thomas Davis by E. & J. Lawson
4) Scott's Official History of the American Negro In the World War by E.J. Scott
See also: Eugene Jacques Bullard on the World War I Biographies webpage, a companion to this main 42eXplore project.
Causes of the First World War (1914-18) from The Corner
War broke out in 1914; a war which was unexpectedly disastrous and destructive in scale. The war was caused by a number of interwoven factors.
Related Websites:
2) Balkan Causes of World War One
3) Causes of World War I from BBC Schools
4) Causes of World War One
5) Causes of World War One
6) Causes: Why Did People Feel the Great War Could Have Been Avoided from Learning
7) German Responsibility for the Outbreak of the War
8) Long Range Causes of World War I
9) War and Neutral Rights
10) Short Overview of World War I
11) World War I
Civil War in Russia
When the First World War broke out, discontent within Russia exploded in the form of a revolution; the Czardom collapsed.
Related Websites:
2) February Revolution 1917
3) Intervention and Civil War, 1918 - 1920 by C. Jorgensen
4) March 1917
5) Revolutionary Upheaval Survived by A. Dubrovolsky as told to N.A. Dodge
6) Russian Revolution of 1917: Causes from The Corner
Dark Autumn from War Times Journal
This online article is about the 1916 Zeppelin Offensive.
Related Websites:
2) Great Zeppelin Raid by T. Morgan
3) Zeppelin Raiders
4) Zeppelin ZI from Spartacus Educational
First Call: American Posters of World War One from Georgetown University Library
The large number of artists involved and their enormous output of posters during the First World War belies this country's late entry into that conflict.
Related Websites:
2) Cartoon Book: Political Cartoons and Comics of World War I
3) Poster War Virtual Exhibit from The Provincial Museum of Alberta
4) Posters from The Great War from Trenches on the Web
5) Propaganda Postcards of the Great War by J. Kosanovich & P. Hageman
6) "A Summons to Comradeship" World War I and II Posters from University of Minnesota
7) "Take Up the Sword of Justice": British Posters of World War One from Georgetown
8) World War I Cartoons
9) WWI Women's Posters
First World War from BBC Medicine Through Time
This brief website summarizes changes in medical technology that was brought by the war.
Another WWI Site Related to Health:
2) War's Cruel Scythe: the Health of Australian Soldiers in the First World War
First World War Statistics from Spartacus International Internet Encyclopedia
This site is a treasure trove of numbers; total casualties and total costs for the Allied and Central Powers, numbers of British soldiers tried and executed, number of "gas" attack casualties, and lots, lots more.
Related Websites:
2) Casualties: First World War from Spartacus Educational
3) French Property Losses: 1914-18 from Spartacus Educational
4) Military Casualties of World War One from First World War
5) World War One - Total Casualties
Hellfire Corner by T. Morgan
Here you will find articles on various aspects of the Great War.
U-Boat War in World War One
Although now more than 80 years in the past, many aspects of submarine technology and tactics were developed in Germany by the Imperial Navy.
Related Websites:
2) First Battle of the Atlantic by G. Goebel
3) Submarines of the Great War
4) U-boat Attack, 1916 from EyeWitness
5) U-Boat War 1914-1918
6) U-boats: Assassins of the Seas from Trenches on the Web
History of the British Army in WW I
This site provides historical details about the British Army, their leaders, an infantryman's uniform and equipment, and much more.
Related Websites:
2) 1918 Australians in France
3) New Zealand and the Great War 1914-1918
Influenza 1918 from PBS's American Experience
It all started on the morning of March 11, 1918 at Camp Funston, Kansas. A company cook named Albert Mitchell reported to the infirmary with typical flu-like symptoms.
Related Website:
2) Bubonic Plague - Far from the Deadliest Epidemic
Internment of Ukrainians in Canada 1914-1920
With the outbreak of World War I, the War Measures Act (1914) was implemented as a result of an Order In Council by the Canadian Government. This resulted in the internment of 8,579 "enemy aliens" of which over 5,000 were Ukrainians.
Related Website:
2) Internment of Ukrainians in Canada
3) Internment of Ukrainians in Canada by R. Sahai
Unfortunate Region by P. van den Heuvel & M. Hoveling
This site focuses on the history and battlefields of the Great War 1914-1918.
Related Websites:
2) Battlefields
3) Charles Fair's Battlefield Guide
4) Old Front Line by P. Reed
Receiving Refugees in The Netherlands during the First World War 1914-1918
The First World War started with the German invasion of Belgium on 4 August 1914. In the following months, the Netherlands was flooded by refugees who came from Belgium to seek refuge on Dutch territory.
United States Enters World War One 1917
When war erupted in 1914, the United States attempted to remain neutral and was a proponent for the rights of neutral states. Eventually the United States did enter World War I - - as a result of several events.
Related Websites:
2) RMS Lusitanina from LostLiners
3) Sinking of the Lusitania 1915
4) United States Foreign Policy during the World War I Era by S. Alvesteffer
Virtual Seminars for Teaching Literature from JISC Technology Applications Programme, Oxford University
This website features online tutorials that are built around the idea of teaching WWI poetry. In addition to poetry, it contains interviews with War veterans, propaganda pamphlets, journals, newspapers, postcards, photographs, letters, video clips, and more.
Related Websites:
2) 20th Century Poetry and War from Peace Pledge Union
3) Break of Day in the Trenches by I. Rosenberg
4) British War Poetry - WWI from Modern History Sourcebook
5) First World War, Part 1 of 20th Century Poetry and War
6) " . . The Rest is Silence." Lost Poets of the Great War by H. Rusche, Emory University
7) Treasury of War Poetry: British and American Poems of the World War1914-1917 by G.H.
8) War Poets: World War I
9) Sonnets of World War I
10) War Poetry
War At Sea
Trench warfare on the Western Front may have captured the popular imagination, but the First World War was very much a maritime conflict as well.
Related Websites:
2) Germany's High Sea Fleet in the World War by Admiral R, Scheer
3) World War I Naval Combat by D. Milford
War Propaganda: World War I
This paper on World War I propaganda was developed for a university graduate seminar course. Use the 'Next' button at top of each page to continue through the extended site.
Related Websites:
2) Publications of the War
3) Wartime Propaganda: World War I
Weapons of War: Poison Gas from First World War
This website presents one perspective on the development and use of chemical weapons, technology that was first utilized in WWI.
Related Websites:
2) Big Guns of the Great War
3) Death on the Wind: Gas Warfare
4) Frontiers: The Machine Gun
5) Gas Warfare from Trenches on the Web
6) Germany's Use of Chemical Warfare in World War I
7) Germany's Use of Chemical Warfare in World War I by B. Blodgett
8) Mustard Gas from Spartacus Educational
9) New Weapons of World War One
10) Tank Warfare
11) WW1 Tank
World War One Era Sheet Music from Sheet Music of Canada's Past, National Library of Canada
This website features Canadian sheet music from the First World War era of 1914 to 1920.
Related Websites:
2) Doughboy Music
3) George M. Cohan MIDI Page: American Patriot and Song Composer from Melody Lane
4) Lieutenant James Reese Europe - Songs Brought Back from the Battlefield
5) Who's Who: George M Cohan
World War I War Hawks, and the Passing of the Nineteenth Amendment
Between 1914 and 1920 the United States encountered two major political agenda’s that seemed to clash as often as they were debated; the Women’s Suffrage Movement and the War Hawk movement in support of U.S involvement in World War I.
Related Websites:
2) "Clear and Present Danger" Test for Subversive Advocacy
3) Ford Peace Ship from Spartacus Educational
4) What Experiences Did Women Peace Envoys Encounter in their 1915 Tour of Warring
European Capitals?
5) Socialist Opposition to World War1 by G. Beiter
Zimmermann Telegram
The greatest cryptography coup of World War I, occurred at 10:30 A.M. on January 17, 1917 inside Room 40 of the old Admiralty Building in London. At that moment, a telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German ambassador in Washington, Count John von Bernstorff, was intercepted and handed over to two British cryptographers.
Websites For Teachers
All Quiet on the Western Front (Grades 9-12) from Discovery School
This lesson begins with the novel, "All Quiet on the Western Front", then extends to consider other war literature.
Related Lesson Plan:
2) All Quiet on the Western Front by E.M. Remarque from Schools of California Online Resources for Educators (SCORE) Project
Power of the Press from Alabama Department of Archives & History
This lesson focuses on World War I and asks students to identify an editorial and propaganda, discuss the differences between a weekly and a daily newspaper, analyze the needs of rural and urban newspaper audiences, and evaluate the possible power of the press and the importance of multiple views concerning events.
Other WWI Lesson Plans from Alabama Department of Archives & History:
2) Black Alabamians in World War I
3) Home Front - "Food Will Win The War"
4) Home Front - "Use It Up, Wear It Out, Make It Do Or Do Without!"
5) Signing Up for Action and Sustaining Morale
6) Question of Honor - The Selective Service
Teaching With Documents Lesson Plan: The Zimmermann Telegram from NARA's Digital Classroom
In January of 1917, British cryptographers deciphered a telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German Minister to Mexico, von Eckhardt, offering United States territory to Mexico in return for joining the German cause. In this exercise, students decode a fictitious message using a simple substitution code.
Other WWI Lessons from U.S. National Archives & Records Administration:
2) Photographs of the 369th Infantry and African Americans during World War I
3) Sow the Seeds of Victory! Posters from the Food Administration During World War I
Teaching the Great War from Tideway School in East Sussex
Follow the classroom activities of a history class studying conditions on the Western Front.
Tunnels and Metaphors in World War 1 Poetry from Teachit
Students examine, analyze, and sometimes manipulate the poetry of Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen to learn about the use of figurative language.
Related Websites:
2) Reliablity of War Poetry
3) War Poetry
What Are We Fighting For Over There? Perspectives on the Great War by S. Durham and M. Lincoln from American Memory, Library of Congress
Measured in terms of the size of armies, the extent of devastation, and the effects upon civilization, the Great War was not comparable to any previous war. How does one begin to teach about such a disastrous resort to arms? This unit introduces students to the rich primary source material of American Memory and attempts to personalize students' comprehension of the Great War.
World War One Movies from BBC's War and Conflict
This site contains Flash video clips that use contemporary photographs, dramatized diary readings and interviews with veterans to explore key themes of World War One. Each chapter may take a couple of minutes to download the first time you view it, so please be patient - - well worth the wait.
Zeppelin Raids by C. Culpin from the Public Record Office
This lesson activity examines how the Zeppelin air raids affected British civilians.
Another Lesson Plan by C. Culpin:
2) Death at Sea in WWI
World War I
poison gas
flu epidemic
'big guns'
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Zimmerman telegram
chemical warfare
Triple Alliance
Western front
Espionage Act
machine gun
Triple Entente
Zimmerman Note
Sussex Pledge
American Expeditionary Forces
codes, ciphers & secret messages
World War II
Selective Service Act
Harlem Renaissance
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
'No-Man's Land'
Liberty Loan
War Industries Board
Espionage Act
Balfour Declaration
Women's Movement
John J. Pershing
Sedition Act
Wilson's Fourteen Points
Argonne Forest
'Big Four'
Christmas truce
ambulance driver
mustard gas
Hague Convention
Great War
Woodrow Wilson
Battle of Tannenberg
League of Nations
Versailles Treaty
Created by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson, 12/02.