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War of 1812The Topic: War of 1812


The Basics - The War of 1812 is sometimes called the "Second War of Independence" or the "forgotten war." It was fought until 1815 between the United States and Great Britain. This conflict was caused mainly by the US resentment of British naval harassment. The British were already at war with France. They seized American ships and took seamen from them, some who were US citizens. The British also attempted to keep US ships from reaching French ports.
More Detail - The War of 1812 could be called the "war of poor communication." Two days before the declaration of war, Great Britain agreed to repeal the naval laws which were chiefly responsible for the conflict. Speedy communication would have also eliminated the greatest battle, the Battle of New Orleans that occurred 15 days after a peace treaty had been signed.
The United States, still a fledgling country, risked national disaster by again going to war with powerful Great Britain. Support in the US was divided with the West and South 'hawkish' for a fight, but people of the New England regions calling for cooler leadership and strongly opposed to war. As the war continued, this internal division of support was amplified. It was also strange that this war over freedom of the seas began with an unsuccessful land invasion of Canada. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war but restored territories to prewar status and established a commission to settle Northwest Territory boundary disputes. Both sides claimed victory.

42eXplore 4 Teens

Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine
Learn about the history of Fort McHenry and its roles in the War of 1812.
Related Websites:
2) Francis Scott Key http://www.usflag.org/francis.scott.key.html
3) National Anthem http://www.law.ou.edu/hist/ssb.html
4) Star Spangled Banner http://americanhistory.si.edu/ssb/
5) Star Spangled Banner http://www.mce.k12tn.net/nation_grows/lesson_7.htm
6) Star Spangled Banner from James Madison University http://www.jmu.edu/madison/anthem.htm
7) Star-Spangled Banner and the War of 1812 from Encyclopedia Smithsonian
8) Star Spangled Banner Links http://www.treefort.org/~rgrogan/web/flag3.htm
History of the War of 1812
Here you find a Canadian perspective on the War of 1812.
Related Websites
2) War of 1812 http://members.tripod.com/~war1812/
3) War of 1812 http://www.warof1812.ca/
4) War of 1812 http://members.attcanada.ca/~htfergus/AmericanWar.html
Key Events & Causes: War of 1812 by G.D. Feldmeth
Here you have an online timeline of events related to the War of 1812.
Related Websites:
2) Events Leading Up to the War of 1812 http://www.mce.k12tn.net/nation_grows/lesson_5.htm
3) Impressment of American Sailors from The Mariner's Museum http://www.mariner.org/usnavy/08/08a.htm
4) Maps of the War of 1812 http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/dhistorymaps/W1812Pages/W1812ToC.htm
5) War of 1812 http://www.usahistory.com/wars/1812.htm
6) War of 1812: Chronology http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/chronology/
7) War of 1812 Timeline from America at War http://www.semo.net/suburb/dlswoff/1812.html
American War of 1812 from Hillsdale College
Here is a collection of collection of primary sources for military history of the War of 1812.
Related Websites:
2) War of 1812 from History Channel http://www.historychannel.com/perl/print_book.pl?ID=35804
3) War of 1812 from Illinois Trails History and Genealogy http://www.iltrails.org/1812hx.htm
4) War of 1812 by J. Leach from GruntsNet http://www.grunts.net/wars/19thcentury/1812/1812.html
5) War of 1812 http://www.sandiego.edu/~jkuss/war1812.html
6) War of 1812 http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/index.html
7) War of 1812 from James Madison University http://www.jmu.edu/madison/War1812.htm
8) War of 1812 http://www.mce.k12tn.net/nation_grows/lesson_6.htm
9) War of 1812 Website from Military Heritage
10) War of 1812: A Most Paradoxical Struggle http://www.linkny.com/~history/1812war.htm
11) War of 1812: Second War for Independence at Military Analysis Network U.S.A.

Activities 2 eXplore

After visiting several of the websites that interest you, complete one or more of the following activities.
Take A War of 1812 Quiz Online. Test your knowledge of the who's, where's and why's with the War of 1812 Quiz. You can find other quizzes at War of 1812 by A. Cordner and the Quiz Section at The War of 1812 website.
Complete A War of 1812 WebQuest. Adapt or follow the procedures found at one of the following webQuest sites:
1) Return of the British (Grades 11-12) http://teach.fhu.edu/technology/EDU506/WebQuests/war1812/war1812.html
2) War of 1812 (Grade 8) http://www.iron.k12.ut.us/schools/...
3) War of 1812 http://www.ocdsb.edu.on.ca/Teacher_Res/WebQuests/War/home_page.htm
4) War of 1812 at Scholastic (Grades 5-8) http://teacher.scholastic.com/webquest/ushist/war1812.htm
5) War of 1812 by S. Sturdevant, Winston Churchill Public School http://www.lkdsb.net/Sites/TEAS/Webquests/1812Webquest/war_of_1812.htm
6) War of 1812 (Grades 9-11) by H. McKinney http://www.esu4.org/tech/edwq/war1812.html
Create A Rocket. "Rockets' red glare" in the War of 1812 were made famous by the "Star Spangled Banner". Follow the directions found at Seltzer Tablet Rocket from Science at Home to construct your own rocket. Observe what types of chemical changes happen to give it boost.
Who Won This "Forgotten War?" In addition to the other websites, you might also want to visit these locations before you organize your research findings. Organize and present findings to support your decision.
1) America's First Defeat by A. Lutins http://www.lutins.org/1812.html
2) Summary: War of 1812-1814 http://members.tripod.com/~war1812/summary.html
3) Treaty of Ghent: A First Nations Perspective http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/background/nat_peace.html
4) War of 1812 by D. Bentley http://www.hwcn.org/link/fso/1812.htm
5) War of 1812 http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist121/Part3/Warof1812.htm
Imagine If the British Had Won! The outcome of the War of 1812 is still debated today. Some call it the "war nobody won." Consider what the effects would have been if the British had decidedly won the war. Present the major changes that you envision occurring.
Compare and Contrast the War of 1812. Select another war and analyze both conflicts to identify ways in which they were similar and ways that they were different. Present the results of your study.
Did Native Americans Lose? Many people believe that Indians were the "big losers" of the War of 1812. Agree or disagree? Explain why?

Websites by Kids for Kids

Re-living History: The War of 1812 (1998 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
Discover the causes and effects of the War of 1812 and its impact on North America. This project contains illustrations and audio clips, a time line of battles and events, plus biographies of important Americans, Amerindians, Canadians, and British figures.
Tippecanoe and the Internet Too! (Grade 4) from Battle Ground Elementary School
This Internet project provides information about the Battle of Tippecanoe.
War of 1812
This website began as a report for a third grade Gifted and Talented class in February 1998. In some ways the War of 1812 was America's second War of Independence.

Battles of the War of 1812

Battle of Lake Erie from Erie Maritime Museum
On September 10, 1813, the British under Commodore Robert Heriot Barclay and the Americans under Perry met in battle near Put-in-Bay, Ohio.
Not-To-Be-Missed Sections:
2) African Americans in the Battle of Lake Erie http://www.brigniagara.org/africanamericans.htm
3) Oliver Hazard Perry http://www.brigniagara.org/history.htm
Related Website:
4) Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial http://www.nps.gov/pevi/
Battles of the War at War of 1812
Here you find information about the major battles of the War of 1812.
Related Website:
2) War of 1812: Major Battles from MultiEducator, Inc. History Central http://www.multied.com/1812/

Fort Erie and The War of 1812
Visit old Fort Erie in Ontario, Canada, where the most bloody Siege of Fort Erie took place on August 15, 1814.

History of Tecumseh and the Battle at Tippecanoe Creek
In 1811 General William Henry Harrison led an army against Prophet's Town on the Tippecanoe River in Indiana. This battle occurred prior to the War of 1812.
Other Websites on the Battle of Tippecanoe:
2) Battle of Tippecanoe from OhioKIDS! Ohio History Central
3) Battle of Tippecanoe http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ky/tippecanoe/titlepage.html
4) Tippecanoe and the Internet Too! http://www.wvec.k12.in.us/battle/
5) Tippecanoe Battlefield Brochure http://www.wvec.k12.in.us/battle/associat.html
National Hero, the Battle of New Orleans
Here is brief biography site on Andrew Jackson and the Battle of New Orleans.
Related Websites:
2) Battle of New Orleans http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/cabildo/cab6.htm
3) Brief Biography of Andrew Jackson 1767 - 1845 by H. Morris
4) National Hero - The Battle of New Orleans from James Madison University http://www.jmu.edu/madison/jack07.htm

Ogdensburg's Role in the War of 1812 from Greater Ogdensburg Chamber Of Commerce
This site discusses the battle which took place in a small New York town during the War of 1812.
Similar Websites:
2) Action at Selkirk During the War of 1812 http://gray.maine.com/lights/1812.htm
3) Battle of Plattsburg - September 11 1814 by J.P. Millard from Lake Champlain
& Lake George Historical Site http://www.historiclakes.org/Plattsburg/Plattsburg.html
4) George Croghan and The Battle of Fort Stephenson by F.H. Eachus
5) War of 1812: Niagara to Stoney Creek from Battlefield House Museum http://www.battlefieldhouse.ca/battle.html

Road to Washington: British Army Style by T. Cavanaugh
This site provides a prelude to the Battle of Bladensburg and the invasion of Washington.
Related Website:
2) British Account of the Burning of Washington by G.R. Gleig http://www.project21.org/BritishBurnWashington1814.html and http://www.nationalcenter.org/BritishBurnWashington1814.html
3) Burning of Washington by Dolley Madison http://www.project21.org/WashingtonBurning1814.html
4) Burning of Washington by Dolley Madison http://www.onealwebsite.com/burn.htm
5) Official British Account of the Capture of Washington D.C. http://www.warof1812.net/

More 2 eXplore

1812 War Message from This Nation
James Madison delivered this to members of the US Senate and the House of Representatives on November 4, 1812.

Few Good Men - English Style!
Here you find a reproduction of an English handbill printed in Newark, England to attract recruits to the Royal Marines during the American War - known in America as the War of 1812.
Ironsides: USS Constitution
Learn about the history of the Constitution. Called "Old Ironsides", this 44-gun frigate won battles with the British frigates Guerriere and Java.
Related Websites:
2) Old Ironsides by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. http://www.jmu.edu/madison/war1812/ironpoem.htm
3) USS Constitution "Old Ironsides" http://www.ussconstitution.navy.mil/
4) USS Constitution - Old Ironsides http://www.seacoastnh.com/ussconstitution/index.html
5) U.S.S. Constitution (Old Ironsides) from James Madison University http://www.jmu.edu/madison/war1812/ironhist.htm
Jean Lafitte: Gentleman Pirate of New Orleans by J. Geringer
He has been called "The Corsair," "The Buccaneer," "The King of Barataria," "The Terror of the Gulf," "The Hero of New Orleans". At three separate times, US presidents have condemned, exonerated and again condemned his actions. He is known for his piracy in the Gulf of Mexico, and lauded for his heroism in the Battle of New Orleans.
Related Website:
2) Jean Laffite, Enigma and Legend by C. Vallar from Suite101 http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/pirates/33757
Privateers and Chassier
During the War of 1812, President James Madison attempted to overcome the small size of the US Navy by issuing Letters of Marquee and Reprisal to private ship owners.
Related Website:
2) Privateering During the War of 1812 by F.P. Young http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~haas/learningcenter/privateers.html
Roles Women Played in the War of 1812 by H. Ferguson
There were women involved in the War of 1812 on both the American and British sides, and through their reminisces, letters and journals, you can get a glimpse of what it was like in this war that spanned many acres and took two and a half years.
Shawnee in the War of 1812 by R. Williams
Learn about the Indian roles in the War of 1812.
Related Websites:
2) American Hero: Tecumseh from James Madison University http://www.jmu.edu/madison/tecumseh/index.htm
3) Object at Hand - Tecumseh's Revenge from Smithsonian Magazine http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues95/jul95/object_0795.html
4) Oneidas in the War of 1812 by A. Wonderley from Oneida Indian Nation
5) Tecumseh http://www.wvec.k12.in.us/battle/tecumseh.html
6) Tecumseh to Governor Harrison at Vincennes http://www.project21.org/Tecumseh.html
7) War of 1812 and Tecumseh http://www-personal.umich.edu/~ksands/War.html
Super Frigates
This site describes the US ships that proved so effective in the War of 1812.
Thomas H. Warner 1780-1828 His Letters
During Ensign. Warner's tour of duty he wrote letters home to his wife, five of which have been preserved.
Treaty of Ghent Ends War
Learn about the treaty that ended the War and the events leading to it.
War of 1812 from Avalon Project at Yale Law School
This collection of eight American documents includes a declaration of war, an agreement to exchange naval prisoners of war and the Treaty of Ghent, among others.
War of 1812, 1812-1815 from African American Freedom Fighters by M. Sylvester
Learn about the Blacks who were willing, able, or chosen to fight the British.
War of 1812 in the Northwest from Ohio Historical Society
This chronology is not in any sense a complete list of the military events and actions of the War of 1812 in the Northwest. Many smaller skirmishes are omitted and only those of major importance to the overall result are included. On the whole, the chronology is meant as a guide to the military campaigns.
Document Transcriptions of the War of 1812 in the Northwest from Ohio Historical Society:
2) Volume I: William Henry Harrison and the War of 1812 in the Northwest http://www.ohiohistory.org/onlinedoc/war1812/harrison/
3) Volume II: Return Jonathan Meigs Jr. and the War of 1812 in the Northwest
4) Vol III - Thomas Worthington and the War of 1812 in the Northwest
5) Vol IV - Anecdotes of the Lake Erie Area War of 1812
Another Document Transcription of the War of 1812 from Ohio Historical Society:
6) Expenditure of Appropriations to Award the Officers and Crews of Certain Vessels for
Captures.... http://www.ohiohistory.org/onlinedoc/war1812/expenditure/
War of 1812 - Era Shipwrecks of Lake Champlain
This website features several shipwrecks of Lake Champlain’s War of 1812.

Websites For Teachers

Baltimore and the War of 1812 by B. Ertle
Students identify the importance of privateers and Letters of Marque, roles of Baltimore and Fort McHenry, and evaluate the importance of Baltimore Clippers on the War of 1812.
Close of the Frontier Threatened the Indian by L.C.Garibaldi
Tremendous changes swept across America in the late 1800's. The building of the railroad and the westward movement of whites led to the destruction of Indian culture.
Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine by J. Rogers from National Park Service
This site contains a collection of lesson plans plus handouts related to Fort McHenry and the War of 1812.
War of 1812 (Grade 2) by J. Vance & K. Bailey
This unit plan (13 lessons) covers events leading to and during the War.
War of 1812 in the News by D. Smith (Grades 7-9) from AskERIC Lesson Plan
In this lesson, students integrate history with art in a study of the War of 1812.
War of 1812: Should it be called the Second War of American Independence? (Grade 8) by J.A.M. Gill from SCORE
Students become "news correspondent - investigative reporter" to research one or more battles, or events, of the War of 1812. Following their research, they write an original article, which may include a map, drawing, or illustration.

Words 2 eXplore

War of 1812 Indian impressment William Henry Harrison war hawk Star-Spangled Banner
"Old Ironsides" Tecumseh Embargo Act Canada Northwest Territories blockade
Andrew Jackson national anthem navy American Revolution frontier loyalist
neutrality privateer burning of the Capital pirate The Prophet battle
fort "orders in counsel" bombardment Loyalist Hartford Convention invasion
flotilla Tippecanoe bomb Great Britain artillery fleet
Letters of Marquee and Reprisal rocket "Battle of New Orleans" United States Andrew Jackson declaration of war
"Forgotten War" invasion of Canada flag Jean Lafitte Federalist Treaty of Ghent

Created by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson, 9/02, Updated 7/07.

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