The Topic:

Easier - Incas are a native South American people that once ruled one of the largest and richest empires in the Americas. Their empire covered much of present-day Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile and parts of Columbia and Argentina. The Inca empire was conquered by invading Spain in the 16th century.
Harder - In the 12th century, conquering Inca tribes spread from the mountains of Peru into the fertile Cuzco valley. By the end of the 15th century, the Incas controlled a huge empire. They numbered more than 10 million people and covered 440,000 square miles (1,140,000 square kilometers). Incas won these lands with their powerful armies, then strictly controlled their people with efficient organization and communication. Incas constructed a paved road system, irrigation canals, and massive stone buildings and fortress temples. In 1532, the empire weakened by civil war and unrest was overwhelmed by a small force of Spanish solders.
Ancient Peru
This visually rich site explores the art, culture, and history of the Incas.
Related Websites:
2) Art & Culture of the Incas
3) Incan Government and Architecture by J. Friedman from Writings Collection
4) Lost Empire by L. Clark from PBS NOVA
5) Unraveling the Mysteries by C. Sherman from St. Petersburg Times
Civilization of the Incas (Grade 6)
This student site provides a comprehensive overview of the Incas.
Related Websites:
2) Inca
3) Inca
4) Incas
5) Incas from Civilizations in America
Incas & Conquistadors by D. Bailey
Learn of the mighty and mysterious Inca Empire that ruled much of South America from 1438 to 1532.
Related Websites:
2) Conquistadors - Peru from PBS
3) Inca Expansion & the Conquistadors from Ecuador Explorer
4) Inca Civilization
5) Life, Times and Execution of the Last Inca by J.Q. Jacobs
6) Pedro de Cieza de Léon: Chronicles of the Incas, 1540 from Modern History
Incan Empire from Carmen Sandiego Connection
Here you can read about the Inca people, rulers, religion, calendar, and more.
Related Websites:
2) Empire of the Incas by D.E. Ogburn
3) Inca by K. Goehring
4) Inca Civilization History
5) Inca Empire
6) Incas
After visiting several of the websites about Incas, complete one or more of the following projects:
Create A Inca History Timeline. Create a timeline that details the major events of Inca history. Consider using a database software and incorporating images and your own drawings.
Complete An Inca WebQuest. Adapt or follow the procedures found at these webQuest sites:
1) Culture of the Inca from Scholastic
2) Inca Empire (Grade 5)
3) Quest to Save Machu Picchu
Compare and Contrast Aztec and Inca Culture. You may first want to visit the companion eduScapes 42eXplore project on Aztecs. Identify ways in which these two cultures are similar and ways in which they differ. Create a multimedia presentation in PowerPoint or HyperStudio that details your findings.
Plan A Tour of the Inca Trail. Use the websites to plan a tour of the major Inca sites in Andes Mountains of Peru and South America. Detail your pretend itinerary and project a time frame for your visit. Estimate the expenses for your trip.
Create A Model of a City Fortress. Construct a model or diorama of a mountain fortress inhabited by Inca people.
Create A Poster Celebrating Inca Accomplishments. Identify all the contributions or accomplishments of the Inca culture. Incorporate these in a colorful and informative poster display.
Websites By Kids For Kids
Inca (Section from The Andes, a1999 ThinkQuest Junior Project)
This project provides information about the Inca culture.
Inca (Reports from Kent School District)
This site contains elementary school student reports and artwork on the Incas.
Incas, Mayas y Aztecas (2000 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
This site examines the history, art, culture, and religions of three important civilizations: Incas, Mayas and Aztecas.
Life in the Andes (2001 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
This project focuses on trekking the Inca trail in the Peruvian Andes.
Project: Inca (2000 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
For centuries, the Incas ruled over their mountainous realm in peace &endash; the same kingdom was brought down to its knees by Spanish invaders leaving behind nothing but cities built on perilous precipices and ruins with foundations so solid, that they have remained standing to this day.
More Websites
Ancient Inca Irrigation Works Restored To Raise Record Crops by S. Litherland
Learn how the agricultural practice of terracing used by the ancient Incas is being revived to help modern farmers in Peru.
Descendants of the Incas by D. and E. Van Buskirk
Lean about the culture of Inca people living today near the city of Cusco, once the capital of the Inca empire.
Inca from Minnesota State University - Mankato EMuseum
Here is a brief summary of the dates, location, population, and religious practices of the Inca Empire.
Other Related Webpages from EMuseum:
2) Inca (Quechua)
3) Spanish Conquest
Inca Architecture
The essence of Inca architecture illustrates three themes: precision, functionality, and austerity.
Related Websites:
2) Inca from PBS NOVA Online
3) Great Wall of the Incas from Science Frontiers
Inca Mummies: Secrets of a Lost World from National Geographic
This site has great pictures, maps, and more about this fantastic archaeological find!
Another Websites from National Geographic:
2) Andes Expedition: Searching for Inca Secrets
3) Ice Treasures of the Inca
Related Websites:
4) Despite Their Rap, Mummies are Really Very Chummy by J. Sanders from St.
Petersburg Times
5) High Mummies by L. Clark from NOVA
6) Ice Mummies of the Inca from NOVA
7) Mystery of Inca Child Sacrifice from Discovery Channel Canada
7) Mummy Trove Found in Peru from BBC News
8) Search for Living Relatives of Inca Child Sacrifices by R. Highfield, News Telegraph
Inca Trail by D. Szostak
Join a middle school teacher on his exploration of Peru and the ancient Incan civilization that once ruled there. Provides background information and pictures of Incan cities and the Spanish influence, especially Cuzco, Machu Picchu, and the Inca Trail.
Related Websites:
2) Cuzco - Capital of the Incas & Machuu Pichuu
3) Inca Trail and Machu Picchu
4) Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
5) Qosqo: Inkas' Sacred Capital
Learn why llamas were important to Incan life.
Lost Crops of the Incas from National Academy Press
This online book highlights plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation.
Machu Picchu: How They Kept the Secret by G. Ziegler from GORP
Until its discovery in the 1911, Machu Picchu,"the lost city of the Incas", remained forgotten for 400 years.
Related Websites:
2) Machu Picchu: Crown Jewel in the Clouds
3) Machu Picchu, Home of the Ancients...
4) Machu Picchu Journey
Talking Knots of the Inka
This article is about a recently discovered manuscript, supposedly dating from the 17th century, explaining the function of the quipus, or knotted strings used by the Incas for keeping records.
Related Websites:
2) Quipu, an Incan Data Structure
3) Quipucamayu
This reference site provides information about the language that was spoken by the Incas and that is used by millions of their descendants today.
Related Websites:
2) Basic Quechua Lessons
3) Cultures of the Andes
Websites For Teachers
Achievements and Challenges of Peru
This unit is intended to focus on some of those aspects of Peruvian life and history that are of great significance to understanding the people of Peru today and their situation.
Civilization of the Incas (Grade 6)
This lesson directs students to students research the ancient Inca empire as a social studies project. Their project will integrate social studies, writing, and research skills.
Inca (Grade 7) from Houghton Mifflin Social Studies
This publisher's lesson plan site contains activity ideas and a curriculum outline for learning about the Inca culture.
Inca Engineering from Newton's Apple
Stone structures, road systems, agricultural terraces, and irrigation systems built in 1450 - 1540 A.D. by Incan engineers speak eloquently of a highly developed culture. The precisely carved, carefully fitted stones required no mortar, yet have withstood 500 years of weather and earthquakes.
Inca Expansionism (Grades 10-12) by B. Turpen, Oklahoma School of Science and Math
Students become familiar with some aspects of the Incas while learning the skills associated with making a map overlay.
Inca Regime (Grades 5-7)
This lesson introduces students to the historical, cultural, and geographical existence of the Inca Culture in South America.
Land of the Inca from National Geographic Xpeditions
This lesson will introduce students to the ancient Inca people and the land on which they lived. They will learn basic facts about the Inca and be able to show where they lived on a map. Students will also look at pictures of the Andes mountains and Inca ruins and discuss the geography of the area. Finally, they will talk about how the Inca lived and compare the Inca way of life to their own.
road system
Native American
Machu Picchu
drainage system
human sacrifice
Mount Ampato
fiber & fabric
sun god
South America
Latino-Hispanic heritage
Franciso Pizarro
way station
Children of the Sun
communication system
Created by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson, 10/02.