The Topic:
Japanese-American Internment

Easier - During World War II the U.S. government forced more than 120,000 Japanese Americans to leave their homes and along with farms, schools, jobs, and businesses. In some cases family members were separated. From 1942 to 1945, they lived in internment camps.
Harder - After the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066. This act based on ethnicity permitted the military to bypass the constitutional safeguards of American citizens in the name of national defense. The order excluded persons of Japanese ancestry then living on the West Coast from residing and working in certain locations. This traumatic uprootment culminated in the mass evacuation and incarceration of most Japanese Americans, most of whom were U.S. citizens or legal permanent resident aliens. They were detained for up to 4 years, without due process of law or any factual basis. They were forced to live in bleak, remote camps behind barbed wire and under the surveillance of armed guards. Japanese American internment raised questions about the rights of American citizens as embodied in the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Children of the Camps
This companion site to the PBS program portrays the experiences and ongoing impact of U.S. Internment on the 60,000 Japanese Americans who were children at the time.
Related Website:
2) Children of the Camps from PBS
Other Related PBS Sites:
3) Conscience and the Constitution from PBS
4) Rabbit in the Moon
Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project from University of Washington
This site provides access to the UW Libraries holdings on the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II, including a virtual exhibit focusing on the Puyallup assembly center, Camp Harmony, and the archival guides and inventories of the UW Libraries Manuscripts and University Archives Division.
Japanese American Experience from Museum of the Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies
Learn more about Japanese American experience and the legacy of internment.
Other Museum Exhibits:
2) Forwarding Address Required from Smithsonian National Postal Museum
3) Internment of San Francisco Japanese from the Museum of the City of San Francisco
4) More Perfect Union from Smithsonian Museum of American History
Masumi Hayashie Photography
This online gallery displays the artist's work showing Japanese American Internment camps in the U. S. and Canada, the daily life of camp inhabitants, and more.
Related Website:
2) Gallery
3) Images of the Japanese American Internment
4) Roosevelt's Policy in WW II: US Concentration Camps for Japanese
After visiting several of the websites, complete one or more of the following projects.
Complete A WebQuest on Japanese Internment. Follow or adapt the procedures found at the following webQuest sites.
1) American World War II Internment Camps (Grades 7-9) by J. Franco, E. Franco, and L.R. Evans
2) Imprisoned in Our Own Country; Japanese- American Internment Camps
3) Japanese Internment by E. Cierniak
Detention or Concentration Camp? Some people disagree with how the history of Japanese-American Interment Camps are being portrayed - - in public monuments and in schools. To learn more about the issues visit the following websites. Identify the 'revisionist' position. Debate the issues. Decide what is accurate.
1) Concentration Camp or Summer Camp? from Mother Jones
2) Japanese Relocation and Internment in the US during WWII by B. Hopgood
3) Tales of American 'Concentration Camps' Perpetuate Slander by R. Estrada
Imagine What Camp Life Was Like. Pretend that you are a Japanese American housed in one of the interment camps during WWII. Write a story that tells what your everyday life would have been like. Share your writing.
Could It Happen Again? Sixty years ago, most Japanese Americans were physically detained. Most were emotionally affected by the regretful experience. Can you envision circumstances where something similar might reoccur in the United States? Debate the possibilities. Decide what measures are needed to insure that something like it would not happen.
Websites By Kids For Kids
History of the Japanese-American Internment from Father Ryan High School, Nashville, TN
This student project provides a comprehensive overview of Japanese-American Internment.
True Facts about the Time and the Real Life Account of Mr. Wayne Yamamoto
This oral history project provides a biographical record on one man's experience.
Related Project from Another Student:
2) Internment Experience by Paul Ozaki's granddaughter, Pasco High School
Where Are We? I Want to Go Home (Section within Through Our Eyes and Hearts and
Minds-World War II , 2001 Platinum Award ThinkQuest Junior Project)
Imagine that you were moved to a wasteland to live, powerless to go home, not knowing if you would ever see your home again.
More Websites
Camps by C.J. Yu
This page contains a map, photographs, and information about many of the internment camps.
Related Websites:
2) Behind Barbed Wire at Amache (Colorado)
3) Granada Japanese Internment Camp (Colorado)
4) Heart Mountain Digital Preservation Project
5) History of Tule Lake Internment Camp and the Pilgrimages
6) Images of Manzanar
7) Japanese-Americans Internment Camps During World War II from the Univ. of Utah
8) Japanese Americans Internment in Arkansas
9) Japanese Interment Camp Links
10) Japanese Internment Camps
11) Japanese Internment Camp Locations
12) Kooskia Internment Camp Project from Univ. of Idaho
13) List of Interment and Detention Camps
14) Manzanar - America's Concentration Camp and
15) Manzanar
16) Manzanar (Photograph)
17) Manzanar Relocation Camp from Masumi Hayashi Photography
18) Topaz Camp (Utah)
19) Tule Lake Relocation Center 1942 - 1946 by I. Fujimoto and D. Sunada
20) War Relocation Authority Camps in Arizona, 1942-1946 from University of Arizona
Executive Order No. 9066
Read the actual text of the February 19, 1942 presidential order.
Related Websites:
2) Chronology of the Japanese American Internment
3) Decision To Evacuate the Japanese from the Pacific Coast by S. Conn and
4) Personal Justice Denied (Excerpt from the Congressional Report)
Free to Die for Their Country (Excerpt) by E.E. Muller
The U.S. government dared to conscript Japanese American internees into the army after forcing them into internment camps on suspicion of disloyalty?
Historical Overview of the Japanese American Internment
Here a brief article summarizes the events of the Japanese American interment during WWII.
Japanese American Internment
This extensive website has articles, documents, and lots of links covering events preceding the war and the camp operations.
Other Comprehensive Websites:
2) Internment Camps in America (Links-site)
3) Japanese-American Internment (Links-site)
Japanese American Internment from the U.S. Department of Justice
On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which began this prohibition.
Japanese American Internment Memorial
This website is for the memorial in San Jose, CA.
Japanese Canadian Internment
The evacuation of the Japanese Canadians, or Nikkei, from the Pacific Coast in the early months of 1942 was the greatest mass movement in the history of Canada.
Related Website:
2) Japanese Internment Camps in Canada
Japanese Internment Camps: A Personal Account
R.O. Komoto provides the memories of her experience.
Similar Biographical Websites:
2) Child's View of Japanese-American Internment Camps by E.O. Onishi
3) Japanese Internment by Aiko H. Uyeki
4) When Americans were Treated as Traitors by D. Kazak
Korematsu Honored with Medal of Freedom from the ACLU News
This article is a tribute to Fred Korematsu and his enduring courage.
Related Websites:
2) Fred Korematsu v. United States http://ww\
3) Korematsu v. United States
4) Korematsu v. United States, Justice Roberts Dissenting
Letters from a Japanese-American Internment Camp from NPR
Listen or read the radio broadcast about the exhibit at the National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C.
Related Website:
2) Forwarding Address Required from Smithsonian National Postal Museum
Unofficial Nikkei Home Page
'Nikkei' at this site is used to describe four generations of Japanese living in America. This page is dedicated to them and their experiences.
Websites For Teachers
Bracelet (Grade 5) by I. Jones
The Year is 1942. The United States and Japan are at war. Emi is a seven-year-old Japanese American who finds herself in the middle of this conflict. Emi and her mother are forced to pack up all their things and move to a place called an internment camp.
Related Lesson:
2) Bracelet (Grade 5) A. Dent
Changing Perspectives on the Japanese Internment Experience from WNET New York
Procedures for teachers is divided into four sections: preparing for the lesson, conducting the lesson, additional activities, and community connections.
Citizenship Denied: An Integrated Unit on the Japanese American Internment
Using a variety of resources, students investigate and interpret diverse points of view among those interned. The lessons are organized around the central question of' 'What are our rights and responsibilities as American citizens?' The goal is to empower students to recognize social injustices and advocate for the constitutional rights of everyone.
Documents and Photographs Related to Japanese Relocation from National Archives
and Records Administration by D. Perry (Grades 9-12)
This lesson relates to the First , Fourth , and Fifth Amendments to the Constitution.
Farewell to Manzanar (Grades 9-10) from Schools of CA Online Resources for Educators (SCORE) by J. Thompson
Students should begin this unit after they have had previous lessons on World War II and have read Farewell to Manzanar.
Internment of Japanese-Americans During World War II from Houghton Mifflin's EduPlace
Students research the daily life of Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II and write radio documentaries using what they learn.
Japanese American Experience: A Way to Look at Global Education (Grades 9-12)
This site houses a unit plan for exploring the World War II incarceration of Japanese Americans.
Using Primary and Secondary Sources to Study an American Tragedy: Japanese-American Internment during World War II by M. Solomon
This lesson plans calls for students to examine the issues and emotions involved with internment of Japanese Americans.
American citizens
World War II
due process
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
racist propaganda
Bill of Rights
anti-Asian discrimination
concentration camp
racial prejudice
martial law
'enemy aliens'
War Relocation Authority
racial profiling
Immigration & Naturalization Service
Great Depression
Japanese ancestry
barbed wire
wartime hysteria
resident alien
reparations payments
Civil Liberties Act of 1988
emotional scars
Redress Movement
Pearl Harbor
West Coast
Constitution of the United States
internment camp
Created by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson, 1/02.